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Chemical Compound Review

Tyramine HCL     4-(2-aminoethyl)phenol hydrochloride

Synonyms: SureCN2121, PubChem16668, CCRIS 986, ACMC-1B02K, AG-B-98716, ...
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Disease relevance of p-Tyramine


Psychiatry related information on p-Tyramine

  • In a group of 30 patients with major unipolar depressive disorder urinary excretion of tyramine sulphate was measured after an oral dose of tyramine [6].
  • Despite dramatic clinical improvement in about one-third of a group of severely depressed, medication-resistant patients one year after modified leucotomy, their relative decrease in conjugated and free tyramine output after an oral tyramine load remained unchanged and abnormal [7].
  • The selective inhibitory effect of milacemide for MAO-B in vivo is confirmed by its potentiation of phenylethylamine-induced stereotyped behavior, whereas vasopressor responses to tyramine were not affected [8].
  • Noncontingent displacement of catecholamines by intraventricular tyramine: biphasic dose-response effects on self-stimulation [9].
  • The posttraining IP administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) HCl (5.0 micrograms/kg) or tyramine HCl (1.0 mg/kg) causes retrograde amnesia for a one-way step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats [10].

High impact information on p-Tyramine


Chemical compound and disease context of p-Tyramine


Biological context of p-Tyramine


Anatomical context of p-Tyramine


Associations of p-Tyramine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of p-Tyramine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of p-Tyramine


  1. Tyramine-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Tiller, J.W., Dowling, J.T., Tung, L.H., Maquire, K.P., Rand, M.J., Davies, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypertyraminemia in cirrhotic patients. Faraj, B.A., Bowen, P.A., Isaacs, J.W., Rudman, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Tyramine kinetics and metabolism in cirrhosis. Faraj, B.A., Fulenwider, J.T., Rypins, E.B., Nordlinger, B., Ivey, G.L., Jansen, R.D., Ali, F.M., Camp, V.M., Kutner, M., Schmidt, F., Rudman, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Red wine as a cause of migraine. Littlewood, J.T., Gibb, C., Glover, V., Sandler, M., Davies, P.T., Rose, F.C. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Tyramine and M.A.O. inhibitors in postural hypotension. Trust, P.M. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Tyramine conjugation test for prediction of treatment response in depressed patients. Hale, A.S., Sandler, M., Hannah, P., Bridges, P.K. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Decreased urinary output of tyramine and its metabolites in depression. Carter, S.B., Sandler, M., Goodwin, B.L., Sepping, P., Bridges, P.K. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. The novel neuropsychotropic agent milacemide is a specific enzyme-activated inhibitor of brain monoamine oxidase B. Janssens de Varebeke, P., Pauwels, G., Buyse, C., David-Remacle, M., De Mey, J., Roba, J., Youdim, M.B. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Noncontingent displacement of catecholamines by intraventricular tyramine: biphasic dose-response effects on self-stimulation. Franklin, K.B., Herberg, L.J. Neuropharmacology (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. The influence of adrenergic receptor antagonists on the amnestic and antiamnestic actions of adrenaline and tyramine. Izquierdo, I., Dias, R.D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Radioimmunoassay of chromogranin A in plasma as a measure of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in normal subjects and patients with pheochromocytoma. O'Connor, D.T., Bernstein, K.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Efferent fibers to Limulus eyes synthesize and release octopamine. Batelle, B.A., Evans, J.A., Chamberlain, S.C. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Tyramine Functions independently of octopamine in the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. Alkema, M.J., Hunter-Ensor, M., Ringstad, N., Horvitz, H.R. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Diarrhea in streptozocin-treated rats. Loss of adrenergic regulation of intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport. Chang, E.B., Bergenstal, R.M., Field, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Evidence for central hypertyraminemia in hepatic encephalopathy. Faraj, B.A., Camp, V.M., Ansley, J.D., Scott, J., Ali, F.M., Malveaux, E.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Bovril and moclobemide: a novel therapeutic strategy for central autonomic failure. Karet, F.E., Dickerson, J.E., Brown, J., Brown, M.J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and tyramine. Nanda, R.N., Johnson, R.H., Keogh, H.J. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Directed selection of MIP-1 alpha neutralizing CCR5 antibodies from a phage display human antibody library. Osbourn, J.K., Earnshaw, J.C., Johnson, K.S., Parmentier, M., Timmermans, V., McCafferty, J. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The tyramine challenge test as a marker for melancholia. Harrison, W.M., Cooper, T.B., Stewart, J.W., Quitkin, F.M., McGrath, P.J., Liebowitz, M.R., Rabkin, J.R., Markowitz, J.S., Klein, D.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Transient ischemia reduces norepinephrine release during sustained ischemia. Neural preconditioning in isolated rat heart. Seyfarth, M., Richardt, G., Mizsnyak, A., Kurz, T., Schömig, A. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Intravenous tyramine pressor response in depression. Ghose, K., Turner, P. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Decarboxylation to tyramine: an important route of tyrosine metabolism in dogs with experimental hepatic encephalopathy. Faraj, B.A., Ali, F.M., Ansley, J.D., Malveaux, E.J. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Regional differences in sympathetic reinnervation after human orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Wilson, R.F., Laxson, D.D., Christensen, B.V., McGinn, A.L., Kubo, S.H. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence for functional sympathetic reinnervation of left ventricle and coronary arteries after orthotopic cardiac transplantation in humans. Burke, M.N., McGinn, A.L., Homans, D.C., Christensen, B.V., Kubo, S.H., Wilson, R.F. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Development and maintenance of renal hypertension in normal and guanethidine sympathectomized rats. Douglas, J.R., Johnson, E.M., Marshall, G.R., Heist, J., Hartman, B.K., Needleman, P. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-dependent subunit dissociation of bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Dhawan, S., Hensley, P., Osborne, J.C., Fleming, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Diarrhoea of famine and malnutrition: investigations using a rat model. 1. Jejunal hypersecretion induced by starvation. Young, A., Levin, R.J. Gut (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission in canine vascular smooth muscle by histamine: mediation by H2-receptors. McGrath, M.A., Shepherd, J.T. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Beta-adrenergic vasodilator mechanism in the finger. Cohen, R.A., Coffman, J.D. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of brief myocardial ischemia on sympathetic coronary vasoconstriction. Gutterman, D.D., Morgan, D.A., Miller, F.J. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Tumor-specific anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III monoclonal antibodies: use of the tyramine-cellobiose radioiodination method enhances cellular retention and uptake in tumor xenografts. Reist, C.J., Archer, G.E., Kurpad, S.N., Wikstrand, C.J., Vaidyanathan, G., Willingham, M.C., Moscatello, D.K., Wong, A.J., Bigner, D.D., Zalutsky, M.R. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Decreased methylation and transcription repressor Sp3 up-regulated human monoamine oxidase (MAO) B expression during Caco-2 differentiation. Wong, W.K., Chen, K., Shih, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. LIM homeobox gene-dependent expression of biogenic amine receptors in restricted regions of the C. elegans nervous system. Tsalik, E.L., Niacaris, T., Wenick, A.S., Pau, K., Avery, L., Hobert, O. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of the substrate specificity of human sulfotransferases SULT1A1 and SULT1A3: site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies. Brix, L.A., Barnett, A.C., Duggleby, R.G., Leggett, B., McManus, M.E. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Increased counteracting effect of eNOS and nNOS on an alpha1-adrenergic rise in total peripheral vascular resistance in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Berg, T. Cardiovasc. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Detoxication of tyramine by the flavin-containing monooxygenase: stereoselective formation of the trans oxime. Lin, J., Cashman, J.R. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. A trace amine, tyramine, functions as a neuromodulator in Drosophila melanogaster. Nagaya, Y., Kutsukake, M., Chigusa, S.I., Komatsu, A. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Tyramine activates the EEG in epileptic patients. Swash, M., Moffett, A.M., Scott, D.F. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  39. Myocardial contractile function and myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase activity in chemically sympathectomized rats. Dowell, R.T. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. Evidence for a dual innervation affecting local blood flow in the hypothalamus of the conscious rabbit. Rosendorff, C., Mitchell, G., Scriven, D.R., Shapiro, C. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
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