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MeSH Review

Viridans Streptococci

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Disease relevance of Viridans Streptococci


High impact information on Viridans Streptococci

  • Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus viridans in oral flora with prolonged erythromycin therapy [6].
  • The conflicting observations could be explained by our finding that the reportedly serotype 4 zmpB 'mutant' differed from its S. pneumoniae parent in lacking capsule and in exhibiting characteristic traits of the Streptococcus viridans group, including resistance to optochin [7].
  • The glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of viridans streptococci, common pathogens of infective endocarditis, are extracellular proteins that convert sucrose into exopolysaccharides and glucans [8].
  • There is speculation of a possible association between exposure to antimalarial drugs and evolution of optochin resistance. alpha-Hemolytic streptococci resistant to optochin, particularly invasive isolates, should be tested for bile solubility or with an S. pneumoniae DNA probe before identification as viridans streptococci [9].
  • The characteristics of S. mutans and FBP-130 in binding Fn confirmed that viridans streptococci adopt different strategies in their interaction with ECM [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Viridans Streptococci


Biological context of Viridans Streptococci


Anatomical context of Viridans Streptococci


Gene context of Viridans Streptococci

  • Concentrations of IL-8, LBP and CRP were already significantly elevated before the onset of fever or bacteraemia due to oral viridans streptococci (OVS) in the first week after transplant during profound neutropenia [21].
  • The distribution of low (< or = 10(4)/ml) or high (> or = 10(5)/ml) concentrations of viridans streptococci did not differ substantially between asthma or COPD patients and control subjects [22].
  • Furthermore, in the presence of recombinant interferon-gamma, LTA from both strains of viridans streptococci provoked the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase mRNA and the production of NO [23].
  • Multiple PBP targets may be modified by transformation and homologous recombination with DNA from PBP genes of viridans streptococci [24].
  • Identifications of viridans streptococci group or those that needed additional biochemicals for species identification occurred with 28% of isolates with the API 20S, 8% with the RapSTR, and 9% with the GPI card [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Viridans Streptococci


  1. Neurologic complications of bacterial endocarditis. Pruitt, A.A., Rubin, R.H., Karchmer, A.W., Duncan, G.W. Medicine (Baltimore) (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro exchange of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants between Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci and genomic organization of the parE-parC region in S. mitis. Janoir, C., Podglajen, I., Kitzis, M.D., Poyart, C., Gutmann, L. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of single doses of amoxicillin or of amoxicillin-gentamicin for the prevention of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus faecalis and by viridans streptococci. Francioli, P., Moreillon, P., Glauser, M.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of cimetidine and antacid on gastric microbial flora. Snepar, R., Poporad, G.A., Romano, J.M., Kobasa, W.D., Kaye, D. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Cell-free released components of Streptococcus sanguis inhibit human platelet aggregation. Herzberg, M.C., Brintzenhofe, K.L., Clawson, C.C. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus viridans in oral flora with prolonged erythromycin therapy. Bromberg, K., Orson, J.M., Triedman, R., Campognone, P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. The puzzle of zmpB and extensive chain formation, autolysis defect and non-translocation of choline-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bergé, M., García, P., Iannelli, F., Prère, M.F., Granadel, C., Polissi, A., Claverys, J.P. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Glucosyltransferases of viridans streptococci are modulins of interleukin-6 induction in infective endocarditis. Shun, C.T., Lu, S.Y., Yeh, C.Y., Chiang, C.P., Chia, J.S., Chen, J.Y. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Optochin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: mechanism, significance, and clinical implications. Pikis, A., Campos, J.M., Rodriguez, W.J., Keith, J.M. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a fibronectin binding protein from Streptococcus mutans. Chia, J.S., Yeh, C.Y., Chen, J.Y. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of gentamicin dosing interval on therapy of viridans streptococcal experimental endocarditis with gentamicin plus penicillin. Gavaldà, J., Pahissa, A., Almirante, B., Laguarda, M., Crespo, E., Pou, L., Fernández, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. High-level aminoglycoside resistance mediated by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes among viridans streptococci: implications for the therapy for endocarditis. Farber, B.F., Yee, Y. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro activity of Sch 34343 against enterococci and other gram-positive bacteria. Eliopoulos, G.M., Reiszner, E., Moellering, R.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Bactericidal activity of combinations of penicillin or clindamycin with gentamicin or streptomycin against species of viridans streptococci. Duperval, R., Bill, N.J., Geraci, J.E., Washington, J.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanism of penicillin-streptomycin synergy for clinical isolates of viridans streptococci. Yee, Y., Farber, B., Mates, S. J. Infect. Dis. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of five methods for the determination of arginine hydrolysis by viridans streptococci. West, P.W., Foster, H.A., Electricwala, Q., Alex, A. J. Med. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Enzymatic modification of glycocalyx in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to viridans streptococci. Dall, L., Barnes, W.G., Lane, J.W., Mills, J. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable cell wall aminopeptidases in strains of viridans streptococci. Linder, L.E., Lönnies, H., Sund, M.L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Infective endocarditis: incidence and mortality in the North East Thames Region. Skehan, J.D., Murray, M., Mills, P.G. British heart journal. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Protein I/II from oral viridans streptococci modulates expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and promotes transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vitro. Vernier, A., Gourieux, B., Klein, J.P., Wachsmann, D. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Inflammatory response to mucosal barrier injury after myeloablative therapy in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Blijlevens, N.M., Donnelly, J.P., DePauw, B.E. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Oropharyngeal flora in asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Indigenous oropharyngeal microorganisms in outpatients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sachs, A.P., van der Waaij, D., Groenier, K.H., Koëter, G.H., Schiphuis, J. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Lipoteichoic acid from viridans streptococci induces the production of tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide by murine macrophages. English, B.K., Patrick, C.C., Orlicek, S.L., McCordic, R., Shenep, J.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Penicillin-binding protein-mediated resistance in pneumococci and staphylococci. Chambers, H.F. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of viridans streptococci by three commercial systems. Peterson, E.M., Shigei, J.T., Woolard, A., de la Maza, L.M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Feasibility of oral ciprofloxacin for the outpatient management of febrile neutropenia in selected children with cancer. Aquino, V.M., Herrera, L., Sandler, E.S., Buchanan, G.R. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
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