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Disease relevance of Paullinia


High impact information on Paullinia

  • CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of 2 doses of ephedra and guarana supplements, per supplement label recommendations, results in persistent increases in heart rate and blood pressure and unfavorable actions on glucose and potassium homeostasis [2].
  • METHODS: To isolate the effect of caffeine from that of other components of guarana, we adopted two different doses of whole extract (G1-0.130 g/kg; G2-0.325 g/kg) or decaffeinated extract (DG1, DG2) [3].
  • CONCLUSION: The changes in lipid metabolism of supplemented rats herein reported are associated with the methylxanthine content of guarana [3].
  • RESULTS: Muscle oleate incorporation was decreased in rats receiving decaffeinated guarana in relation to G1 and G2; as was CPT I mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius [3].
  • Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke [4].

Biological context of Paullinia


Anatomical context of Paullinia


Associations of Paullinia with chemical compounds

  • The guaraná powder was found to contain 2.16, 1.10 and 36.78 mg g-1 of theobromine (TB), theophylline (TP) and caffeine (CF), respectively, and in urine it was possible to detect TB and TP up to 13 d and CF up to 9 d after the administration of guaraná powder [10].
  • In this paper, the xanthine content of guaraná powder was determined, in addition to its clearance time in horses [10].
  • Addition of S9 microsomal fraction, catalase, superoxide dismutase or thiourea counteracted the genotoxic activity of guarana, suggesting that oxygen reactive species play an essential role in the genotoxicity of aqueous guarana extracts [11].
  • Extraction of methylxanthines from guaraná seeds, maté leaves, and cocoa beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol [12].
  • Purine alkaloids in Paullinia [13].

Gene context of Paullinia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Paullinia


  1. Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products. Cannon, M.E., Cooke, C.T., McCarthy, J.S. Med. J. Aust. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Haller, C.A., Jacob, P., Benowitz, N.L. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Lipid metabolism in trained rats: effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation. Lima, W.P., Carnevali, L.C., Eder, R., Costa Rosa, L.F., Bacchi, E.M., Seelaender, M.C. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke. Avato, P., Pesante, M.A., Fanizzi, F.P., Santos, C.A. Lipids (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Bérubé-Parent, S., Pelletier, C., Doré, J., Tremblay, A. Br. J. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of guarana with in vitro bioassays. Santa Maria, A., Lopez, A., Diaz, M.M., Muñoz-Mingarro, D., Pozuelo, J.M. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine. Mansi, I.A., Huang, J. Am. J. Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver. Fukumasu, H., Avanzo, J.L., Heidor, R., Silva, T.C., Atroch, A., Moreno, F.S., Dagli, M.L. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel property of an aqueous guaraná extract (Paullinia cupana): inhibition of platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Bydlowski, S.P., Yunker, R.L., Subbiah, M.T. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Determination of xanthines by high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in horse urine after ingestion of Guaraná powder. Salvadori, M.C., Rieser, E.M., Ribeiro Neto, L.M., Nascimento, E.S. The Analyst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) in prokaryotic organisms. da Fonseca, C.A., Leal, J., Costa, S.S., Leitão, A.C. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Extraction of methylxanthines from guaraná seeds, maté leaves, and cocoa beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol. Saldaña, M.D., Zetzl, C., Mohamed, R.S., Brunner, G. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Purine alkaloids in Paullinia. Weckerle, C.S., Stutz, M.A., Baumann, T.W. Phytochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Chemopreventive effects of Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, the guaraná, on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. Fukumasu, H., da Silva, T.C., Avanzo, J.L., de Lima, C.E., Mackowiak, I.I., Atroch, A., de Souza Spinosa, H., Moreno, F.S., Dagli, M.L. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. Basile, A., Ferrara, L., Pezzo, M.D., Mele, G., Sorbo, S., Bassi, P., Montesano, D. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of guarana on exercise in normal and epinephrine-induced glycogenolytic mice. Miura, T., Tatara, M., Nakamura, K., Suzuki, I. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Guarana (Paullinia cupana): toxic behavioral effects in laboratory animals and antioxidants activity in vitro. Mattei, R., Dias, R.F., Espínola, E.B., Carlini, E.A., Barros, S.B. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers. Galduróz, J.C., Carlini, E.A. São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. HPLC determination of caffeine and theophylline in Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Cola spp. samples. Belliardo, F., Martelli, A., Valle, M.G. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. (1985) [Pubmed]
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