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Chemical Compound Review

theobromine     3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione

Synonyms: Santheose, Teobromin, Theostene, Thesodate, Theobromin, ...
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Disease relevance of theobromine


Psychiatry related information on theobromine


High impact information on theobromine


Chemical compound and disease context of theobromine


Biological context of theobromine


Anatomical context of theobromine


Associations of theobromine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of theobromine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of theobromine

  • Identification and quantitation of metabolites in plasma and urine both by HPLC and by thin-layer chromatography coupled with radiography indicated that theobromine was predominant in plasma [17].
  • The corresponding figures for interday precision (n = 4 days) were fair (16.1%) in comparison to those obtained with MECC, for which the RSD was 1.49% when theobromine was used as internal standard [35].
  • Samples of plasma, saliva, and breast milk were assayed for theobromine by high pressure liquid chromatography [24].
  • We report the isolation of a bifunctional coffee caffeine synthase (CCS1) clone from coffee endosperm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique using previously reported sequence information for theobromine synthases (CTSs) [36].
  • Biotransformation of theobromine (TBR) was compared in rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, and dogs by assaying urinary metabolites using HPLC after oral administration of a 5 mg/kg dose containing 8-14C-TBR [37].


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  14. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 22). Effects of 2- and 4-week administration of theobromine on the testis. Funabashi, H., Fujioka, M., Kohchi, M., Tateishi, Y., Matsuoka, N. The Journal of toxicological sciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Pentoxifylline inhibits HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression by blocking NF-kappa B action. Biswas, D.K., Dezube, B.J., Ahlers, C.M., Pardee, A.B. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of methylxanthine derivatives on doxorubicin transport and antitumor activity. Kakuyama, A., Sadzuka, Y. Curr. Drug Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Theobromine kinetics and metabolic disposition. Tarka, S.M., Arnaud, M.J., Dvorchik, B.H., Vesell, E.S. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. High levels of methylxanthines in chocolate do not alter theobromine disposition. Shively, C.A., Tarka, S.M., Arnaud, M.J., Dvorchik, B.H., Passananti, G.T., Vesell, E.S. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. Gu, L., Gonzalez, F.J., Kalow, W., Tang, B.K. Pharmacogenetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Caffeine and theophylline metabolism in newborn and adult human hepatocytes; comparison with adult rat hepatocytes. Berthou, F., Ratanasavanh, D., Alix, D., Carlhant, D., Riche, C., Guillouzo, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Genotoxicity of cocoa examined by microbial and mammalian systems. Renner, H.W., Münzner, R. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Imidazodiazepinediones: a new class of adenosine receptor antagonists. Daly, J.W., Hide, I., Bridson, P.K. J. Med. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Pentoxifylline inhibits certain constitutive and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activities of human normal dermal fibroblasts. Berman, B., Wietzerbin, J., Sanceau, J., Merlin, G., Duncan, M.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Breast milk distribution of theobromine from chocolate. Resman, B.H., Blumenthal, P., Jusko, W.J. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Pentoxifylline inhibits the proliferation of human fibroblasts derived from keloid, scleroderma and morphoea skin and their production of collagen, glycosaminoglycans and fibronectin. Berman, B., Duncan, M.R. Br. J. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of theobromine by phenobarbital- and 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in rat liver. Role of thiol compounds. Shively, C.A., Vesell, E.S. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Studies on theobromine disposition in normal subjects. Alterations induced by dietary abstention from or exposure to methylxanthines. Drouillard, D.D., Vesell, E.S., Dvorchik, B.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography in the analysis of catechins and xanthines in chocolate. Gotti, R., Fiori, J., Mancini, F., Cavrini, V. Electrophoresis (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of methylxanthines on acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in various induction states. Kalhorn, T.F., Lee, C.A., Slattery, J.T., Nelson, S.D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of the behavioral effects of chlordiazepoxide by methylxanthines and analogs of adenosine in squirrel monkeys. Coffin, V.L., Spealman, R.D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Kinetics of caffeine metabolism in control and 3-methylcholanthrene induced rat liver microsomes. Bonati, M., Celardo, A., Galletti, F., Latini, R., Tursi, F., Belvedere, G. Toxicol. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. The influence of theobromine on angiogenic activity and proangiogenic cytokines production of human ovarian cancer cells. Barcz, E., Sommer, E., Sokolnicka, I., Gawrychowski, K., Roszkowska-Purska, K., Janik, P., Skopinska-Rózewska, E. Oncol. Rep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytochrome P450 isoform selectivity in human hepatic theobromine metabolism. Gates, S., Miners, J.O. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Inhibitory effect of theobromine on induction of angiogenesis and VEGF mRNA expression in v-raf transfectants of human urothelial cells HCV-29. Skopinska-Rózewska, E., Janik, P., Przybyszewska, M., Sommer, E., Bialas-Chromiec, B. Int. J. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with direct injection of plasma for the determination of cefotaxime and its metabolite. Castaneda Penalvo, G., Kelly, M., Maillols, H., Fabre, H. Anal. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Mizuno, K., Okuda, A., Kato, M., Yoneyama, N., Tanaka, H., Ashihara, H., Fujimura, T. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Comparative theobromine metabolism in five mammalian species. Miller, G.E., Radulovic, L.L., DeWit, R.H., Brabec, M.J., Tarka, S.M., Cornish, H.H. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1984) [Pubmed]
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