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Disease relevance of Somatotypes

  • Arterial plasma noradrenaline predicts left ventricular mass independently of blood pressure and body build in men who develop hypertension over 20 years [1].
  • Upper body type obesity may already be recognised in early puberty in caucasian girls and is associated with a characteristic androgen/oestrogen profile [2].
  • We prospectively determined the risk of initial stinger experience in a group of college football players while considering the presence of cervical canal stenosis and each player's position, playing time, and body type [3].
  • Body fat distribution was classified into upper- (N = 24) and lower-half body type (N = 16), and androgen levels and the incidence of hirsutism were compared in the two types [4].
  • Therefore, compared to NSO, LSO women have distinctive clinical and endocrine characteristics, namely more pronounced hyperinsulinemia, higher E1 concentrations and a central type body fat distribution [5].

Psychiatry related information on Somatotypes


High impact information on Somatotypes

  • We make use of the newly defined metropolitan and micropolitan Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) and a seven-level size typology to tabulate origin-destination-specific migration flow data from both Census 2000 and IRS tax-return administrative records for the period 1995-2000 [11].
  • These Pick body-type filaments were also observed in the perikarya of ballooned neurons and neuronal processes around Pick body-bearing cells [12].
  • Foreign body-type multinucleated giant cell formation is potently induced by alpha-tocopherol and prevented by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 [13].
  • Interleukin-4 induced the formation of foreign body-type giant multinucleated cells from human monocyte-derived macrophages, an effect that was optimized with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3, dependent on the concentration of interleukin-4, and specifically prevented by anti-interleukin-4 [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Familial early-onset alcoholism has a poor outcome in Japan, and this multivariate typology has high predictive validity [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Somatotypes


Biological context of Somatotypes


Anatomical context of Somatotypes

  • The location of body fat has been used to delineate three body types: gynoid (pear shape), intermediate, and android (apple shape) [22].
  • Comparative analysis revealed several differences between dolphin and human visual cortex in the laminar distribution of CR-positive perikarya, although general typology of the immunoreactive CR-positive neurons was similar in both species [23].
  • Distinct neoplastic follicles were observed in various lymph nodes and contained many cells with Russell body-type inclusions that were positive for IgM and corresponded to dilated cisternae of the RER [24].
  • Instead, foreign body-type cells were shown at the interface of mandibular bone and hydroxylapatite deposit, as well as abundant connective tissue reaction inside HA deposits [25].
  • The limiting membranes of late, residual body-type vacuoles either showed patchy filipin-induced deformation or were completely smooth [26].

Associations of Somatotypes with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of the relationship between body build and hormone levels indicated that estradiol levels were highest in gynandromorphic men and lowest in mesomorphic men [27].
  • Discussion of significance of these equations in the light of extensive literature suggests that about half of the error variance in predicting CR may be explained by the lack of suitable data on somatotype and much of the residual variance, including the day-to-day variation in CR, relate to factors altering basal O2 consumption [28].
  • The second major finding is that the two groups of rats, which are markedly different as regards sexual typology, exhibit different behavioral responses to 7-OH-DPAT [29].
  • Previous hypotheses relating testosterone to strong body build and antisocial behavior, respectively, received only weak or no support [30].
  • Effect of body build on the clearance of atracurium: implication for drug dosing [31].

Gene context of Somatotypes


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Somatotypes


  1. Arterial plasma noradrenaline predicts left ventricular mass independently of blood pressure and body build in men who develop hypertension over 20 years. Strand, A.H., Gudmundsdottir, H., Os, I., Smith, G., Westheim, A.S., Bjørnerheim, R., Kjeldsen, S.E. J. Hypertens. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. New hormone-related markers of high risk to breast cancer. Stoll, B.A., Secreto, G. Ann. Oncol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Stingers, the Torg ratio, and the cervical spine. Castro, F.P., Ricciardi, J., Brunet, M.E., Busch, M.T., Whitecloud, T.S. The American journal of sports medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Body fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Douchi, T., Ijuin, H., Nakamura, S., Oki, T., Yamamoto, S., Nagata, Y. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of obese women with reduced sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. Pasquali, R., Casimirri, F., Platè, L., Capelli, M. Horm. Metab. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. Cooper, C., Cawley, M., Bhalla, A., Egger, P., Ring, F., Morton, L., Barker, D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Latent class typology of nicotine withdrawal: genetic contributions and association with failed smoking cessation and psychiatric disorders. Xian, H., Scherrer, J.F., Madden, P.A., Lyons, M.J., Tsuang, M., True, W.R., Eisen, S.A. Psychological medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide. Rilke, O., Safar, C., Israel, M., Barth, T., Felber, W., Oehler, J. Neuropsychobiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. An MMPI typology of cocaine abusers. Moss, P.D., Werner, P.D. Journal of personality assessment. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of two multidimensional health locus of control instruments. Marshall, G.N., Collins, B.E., Crooks, V.C. Journal of personality assessment. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Migration up and down the urban hierarchy and across the life course. Plane, D.A., Henrie, C.J., Perry, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies of Pick's disease. Murayama, S., Mori, H., Ihara, Y., Tomonaga, M. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Foreign body-type multinucleated giant cell formation is potently induced by alpha-tocopherol and prevented by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022. McNally, A.K., Anderson, J.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Interleukin-4 induces foreign body giant cells from human monocytes/macrophages. Differential lymphokine regulation of macrophage fusion leads to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells. McNally, A.K., Anderson, J.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Prediction of 3-year outcome of treated alcoholics by an empirically derived multivariate typology. Yoshino, A., Kato, M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Endogenous plasma sex hormones in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer: results from a case-control study in Moscow. Zaridze, D., Kushlinskii, N., Moore, J.W., Lifanova, Y., Bassalyk, L., Wang, D.Y. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation of mycolic acid-containing glycolipids in Nocardia rubra and their granuloma forming activity in mice. Yano, I., Tomiyasu, I., Kaneda, K., Kato, Y., Sumi, Y., Kurano, S., Sugimoto, N., Sawai, H. J. Pharmacobio-dyn. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Android (centralized) obesity and somatotypes in men: association with mesomorphy. Mueller, W.H., Joos, S.K. Ann. Hum. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Sex differences in the toxicokinetics of inhaled solvent vapors in humans 2. 2-propanol. Ernstgård, L., Sjögren, B., Warholm, M., Johanson, G. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? Timms, P.M., Mannan, N., Hitman, G.A., Noonan, K., Mills, P.G., Syndercombe-Court, D., Aganna, E., Price, C.P., Boucher, B.J. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Lack of repair of rat skull critical size defect treated with bovine morphometric protein bound to microgranular bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite. Ferreira, G.R., Cestari, T.M., Granjeiro, J.M., Taga, R. Brazilian dental journal. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. A weight shape index for assessing risk of disease in 44,820 women. Rimm, A.A., Hartz, A.J., Fischer, M.E. Journal of clinical epidemiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the primary visual cortex of dolphin and human brains. Glezer, I.I., Hof, P.R., Morgane, P.J. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. A case of swine follicular lymphoma with intracytoplasmic immunoglobulin inclusions. Kadota, K., Niibori, S. J. Comp. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of hydroxylapatite/ polymer-composite in facial bone augmentation. An experimental study. Ylinen, P., Suuronen, R., Taurio, R., Törmälä, P., Rokkanen, P. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Filipin labelling and intramembrane particles on the membranes of early and later autophagic vacuoles in Ehrlich ascites cells. Punnonen, E.L., Reunanen, H., Hirsimäki, P., Lounatmaa, K. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. The influence of age, alcohol consumption, and body build on gonadal function in men. Sparrow, D., Bosse, R., Rowe, J.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Total body potassium and 24-hour creatinine excretion in healthy males. Turner, W.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Behavioral effects induced by the dopamine D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT in sexually-active and -inactive male rats. Ferrari, F., Giuliani, D. Neuropharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Testosterone, aggression, physical, and personality dimensions in normal adolescent males. Olweus, D., Mattsson, A., Schalling, D., Löw, H. Psychosomatic medicine. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of body build on the clearance of atracurium: implication for drug dosing. Beemer, G.H., Bjorksten, A.R., Crankshaw, D.P. Anesth. Analg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Distribution of neuronal populations containing neurofilament protein and calcium-binding proteins in the canine neocortex: regional analysis and cell typology. Hof, P.R., Bogaert, Y.E., Rosenthal, R.E., Fiskum, G. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneuron vulnerability to aging in canine prefrontal cortex. Pugliese, M., Carrasco, J.L., Geloso, M.C., Mascort, J., Michetti, F., Mahy, N. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Evaluation of ADHD typology in three contrasting samples: a latent class approach. Neuman, R.J., Todd, R.D., Heath, A.C., Reich, W., Hudziak, J.J., Bucholz, K.K., Madden, P.A., Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., Kuperman, S., Hesselbrock, V., Reich, T. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Indices of obesity and behaviour of the pedicled tram flap in breast reconstruction. Tuominen, H.P., Kinnunen, J., Svartling, N.E., Asko-Seljavaara, S. Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery / Nordisk plastikkirurgisk forening [and] Nordisk klubb for handkirurgi. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Body build and atopy. Xu, B., Jarvelin, M.R., Pekkanen, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Efficacy of fluvoxamine in preventing relapse in alcohol dependence: a one-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study with analysis by typology. Chick, J., Aschauer, H., Hornik, K. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Relation between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and morphologic somatotypes. LeBlanc, R., Labelle, H., Rivard, C.H., Poitras, B. Spine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Association of body build with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension among Chinese adults: a 4-year follow-up study. Tai, T.Y., Chuang, L.M., Wu, H.P., Chen, C.J. International journal of epidemiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Plasma thrombomodulin concentrations in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in a population sample. Nilsson, T.K., Hellsten, G., Amiral, J. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (1993) [Pubmed]
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