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Chemical Compound Review

Acrylodan     1-(6-dimethylaminonaphthalen- 2-yl)prop-2...

Synonyms: Acrylodan;, SureCN300438, AG-H-49459, AC1L2XOT, AK-36612, ...
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High impact information on Acrylodan

  • After oligomerization on membranes, only the mutants with acrylodan attached to residues in the sequence 118-140 exhibited a marked blue shift in the fluorescence emission maximum, indicative of movement of the fluorophore to a hydrophobic environment [1].
  • We showed a direct correlation between the kinetics of nucleotide binding/turnover and the conformational change reported by acrylodan at position 23 of the regulatory light chain [2].
  • Moreover, phosphorylation and carbamoylation of the active center serine shows distinctive changes in acrylodan fluorescence spectra at the Omega loop sites, depending on the chirality and steric dimensions of the covalently conjugated ligand [3].
  • The fluorophore acrylodan, site-specifically incorporated at positions 76, 81, and 84, on the external portion of the loop not lining the active site gorge, shows changes in its fluorescence spectrum that reflect the fluorescent side chain moving from a hydrophobic environment to become more solvent-exposed [3].
  • Reconstitution was monitored using both regeneration of factor VIIIa activity and fluorescence quenching of an acrylodan-labeled A2 (Ac-A2) by fluorescein-labeled A1/A3-C1-C2 [4].

Biological context of Acrylodan

  • Here we describe the kinetics of the membrane binding of fluorescent (acrylodan-labeled) peptides measured with a stopped-flow technique [5].
  • Nonetheless, the relatively strong association between stearic acid and apo-alpha-LA was also confirmed by means of the fluorescent indicator acrylodated fatty acid binding protein, in which addition of alpha-LA to the stearate-loaded indicator protein reverses the decrease in fluorescence of the acrylodan chromophore conjugated to the protein [6].
  • We have engineered an acrylodan-modified derivative of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) whose fluorescence emission signal has allowed the synergistic binding between nucleotides and physiological inhibitors of cAPK to be examined (Whitehouse, S., and Walsh, D. A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 3682-3692) [7].
  • A synthetic peptide to A1 domain residues 97-105, predicted to be A3 domain-interactive from molecular modeling, inhibited the formation of a functional A1/A3C1C2 dimer (apparent K(i) = 0.64 +/- 0.21 muM) and reduced the efficiency of energy transfer between a fluorescein-labeled A1 subunit and an acrylodan-labeled A3C1C2 subunit [8].
  • The influence of various actin-binding proteins and drugs on the fluorescence emission of rabbit muscle actin labelled with the fluorescent probe acrylodan (6-acryloyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) at Cys-374, the penultimate amino acid residue of the actin amino acid sequence, was studied [9].

Anatomical context of Acrylodan

  • The binding of chicken gizzard caldesmon to actin was studied both in the presence and the absence of caltropin using Airfuge centrifugation experiments, disulfide cross-linking studies, and the fluorescent probe acrylodan (6-acryloyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene) [10].
  • The acrylodan-labeled light chain was exchanged into the A-bands of chicken pectoralis myofibrils in situ to demonstrate the localization and activity of the biosensor in a highly ordered contractile system [11].
  • The binding of chicken gizzard caldesmon to smooth muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) was studied using caldesmon-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD), and the fluorescent probe acrylodan [12].
  • The observation of polarized fluorescence of encapsulated actin labeled with acrylodan indicated that the actin filaments in the transformed liposomes aligned along the long axis of the liposomes [13].
  • Upon acrylodan-labeled kinesin binding to microtubules in the presence of 1 mM AMPPNP, the peak intensity was enhanced by 3.4-fold, indicating the structural change of the kinesin head by the binding [14].

Associations of Acrylodan with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acrylodan

  • Direct detection of calmodulin tuning by ryanodine receptor channel targets using a Ca2+-sensitive acrylodan-labeled calmodulin [20].
  • Acrylodan-labeled caldesmon, when excited at 375 nm, had an emission maximum at 504 nm [21].
  • For all of the proteins except for acrylodan-labeled IFABP, the fluorescence quantum yields calculated assuming simple energy conservation were anomalously high, i.e., the apparent heat signals were lower than those predicted from independent fluorescence measurements [22].
  • The kinetics of labeling CETP by either 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS) or acrylodan were followed by observing the increase in fluorescence of the bound probes [23].
  • Nuclei isolated from undifferentiated cells were able to phosphorylate the acrylodan-labeled MARCKS peptide, a high-affinity fluorescent PKC substrate [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acrylodan


  1. Molecular architecture of a toxin pore: a 15-residue sequence lines the transmembrane channel of staphylococcal alpha-toxin. Valeva, A., Weisser, A., Walker, B., Kehoe, M., Bayley, H., Bhakdi, S., Palmer, M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Novel sensors of the regulatory switch on the regulatory light chain of smooth muscle Myosin. Mazhari, S.M., Selser, C.T., Cremo, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibitors of different structure induce distinguishing conformations in the omega loop, Cys69-Cys96, of mouse acetylcholinesterase. Shi, J., Radic', Z., Taylor, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Sites in the A2 subunit involved in the interfactor VIIIa interaction. Koszelak, M.E., Huggins, C.F., Fay, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Kinetics of interaction of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, membranes, and calmodulin. Arbuzova, A., Wang, J., Murray, D., Jacob, J., Cafiso, D.S., McLaughlin, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Interactions of alpha-lactalbumin with fatty acids and spin label analogs. Cawthern, K.M., Narayan, M., Chaudhuri, D., Permyakov, E.A., Berliner, L.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Synergistic binding of nucleotides and inhibitors to cAMP-dependent protein kinase examined by acrylodan fluorescence spectroscopy. Lew, J., Coruh, N., Tsigelny, I., Garrod, S., Taylor, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Factor VIII A1 Domain Residues 97-105 Represent a Light Chain-Interactive Site. Ansong, C., Miles, S.M., Fay, P.J. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The interaction of 6-propionyl-2-(NN-dimethyl)aminonaphthalene (PRODAN)-labelled actin with actin-binding proteins and drugs. Zechel, K. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of caltropin on caldesmon-actin interaction. Mani, R.S., Kay, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A genetically engineered, protein-based optical biosensor of myosin II regulatory light chain phosphorylation. Post, P.L., Trybus, K.M., Taylor, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Calcium-dependent regulation of the caldesmon-heavy meromyosin interaction by caltropin. Mani, R.S., Kay, C.M. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Transformation of actin-encapsulating liposomes induced by cytochalasin D. Miyata, H., Kinosita, K. Biophys. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Mechanical and chemical properties of cysteine-modified kinesin molecules. Iwatani, S., Iwane, A.H., Higuchi, H., Ishii, Y., Yanagida, T. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Site-specific chemical modification of interleukin-1 beta by acrylodan at cysteine 8 and lysine 103. Yem, A.W., Epps, D.E., Mathews, W.R., Guido, D.M., Richard, K.A., Staite, N.D., Deibel, M.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Linear dichroism of acrylodan-labeled tropomyosin and myosin subfragment 1 bound to actin in myofibrils. Szczesna, D., Lehrer, S.S. Biophys. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Coupled responses of the regions near cysteine-190 and the carboxy terminus of rabbit cardiac tropomyosin: fluorescence and circular dichroism studies. Clark, I.D., Burtnick, L.D. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Dual-labeled glucose binding protein for ratiometric measurements of glucose. Ge, X., Tolosa, L., Rao, G. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Acrylodan can label amino as well as sulfhydryl groups: results with low-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein[a], and lipid-free proteins. Mims, M.P., Sturgis, C.B., Sparrow, J.T., Morrisett, J.D. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Direct detection of calmodulin tuning by ryanodine receptor channel targets using a Ca2+-sensitive acrylodan-labeled calmodulin. Fruen, B.R., Balog, E.M., Schafer, J., Nitu, F.R., Thomas, D.D., Cornea, R.L. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Calcium-dependent regulation of caldesmon by an 11-kDa smooth muscle calcium-binding protein, caltropin. Mani, R.S., McCubbin, W.D., Kay, C.M. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Photoacoustic analysis of proteins: volumetric signals and fluorescence quantum yields. Kurian, E., Prendergast, F.G., Small, J.R. Biophys. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. The essential role of a free sulfhydryl group in blocking the cholesteryl site of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Epps, D.E., Vosters, A.F. Chem. Phys. Lipids (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Dynorphin B is an agonist of nuclear opioid receptors coupling nuclear protein kinase C activation to the transcription of cardiogenic genes in GTR1 embryonic stem cells. Ventura, C., Zinellu, E., Maninchedda, E., Maioli, M. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Structural basis for the nucleic acid binding cooperativity of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein: the (Lys/Arg)3(Ser/Thr)2 (LAST) motif. Casas-Finet, J.R., Fischer, K.R., Karpel, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of cytochrome b5 association reactions. Characterization of metmyoglobin and cytochrome P-450cam binding to genetically engineered cytochromeb5. Stayton, P.S., Fisher, M.T., Sligar, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Influence of caltropin on the caldesmon induced polymerization of G-actin. Mani, R.S., Kay, C.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
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