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Chemical Compound Review

GOLD     gold

Synonyms: Colloidal gold, Gold-197, Gold solution, auride(1-), Burnish gold, ...
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Disease relevance of Colloidal gold

  • Colloidal gold particles as a new in vivo marker of early acute lung injury [1].
  • Colloidal gold spheres were coated with staphylococcal protein A and were used to determine the location of NS and L proteins on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes using monospecific anti-NS and anti-L IgG preparations [2].
  • Colloidal gold radionucleotide 198Au scanning can demonstrate the direction of regional lymphatic drainage in patients with primary malignant melanoma [3].
  • Colloidal gold was complexed with monoclonal IgG to the inner capsid of human rotavirus [4].
  • It is shown that colloidal gold (CG) particles coated with polyclonal antibody raised against Staphylococcus aureus surface antigen expressed in vivo bound to the surface of S. aureus strain F1440 grown in milk whey, but not to homologous bacteria grown in TSB [5].

High impact information on Colloidal gold


Biological context of Colloidal gold

  • Colloidal gold is an electron-dense, nondegradable marker that is easily identified within the cell and serves as a valuable probe for studying receptor binding and endocytosis [11].
  • Colloidal gold-labeled fibrinogen (Fgn-Au label) in conjunction with video-enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy (VDIC) was used to identify fibrinogen binding sites, glycoprotein IIb/IIIb (GPIIb/IIIa), on fully spread platelets [12].
  • Colloidal gold-labeled lectin cytochemistry was used to analyze sugar residues in hepatocytes at the subcellular level [13].
  • Colloidal gold nanocrystals have been used to develop a new class of nanobiosensors that is able to recognize and detect specific DNA sequences and single-base mutations in a homogeneous format [14].
  • Colloidal gold particles, coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated with simple (large T) nuclear localization signals (NLSs), bipartite (nucleoplasmin) NLSs or mutant NLSs, were used to assay nuclear import [15].

Anatomical context of Colloidal gold

  • Colloidal gold conjugates of AGE-BSA bound to caveolae and were internalized to be trafficked to lysosomal-like compartments [16].
  • Colloidal gold taken up as a complex with low-density lipoprotein was excreted into the feces via the common bile duct at a maximal rate of about 5% daily, 4 to 12 days after injection [17].
  • Colloidal gold could be seen on the cell surface after specific binding to cells carrying C5b-8 sites at 0 degree C. After incubating these cells at 37 degrees C, gold particles were internalized into the cell continuously via endocytic vesicles [18].
  • Heparinase III treatment induced an almost complete loss of CCG binding in all basement and basolateral membranes, whereas chondroitinase ABC treatment led to a lesser but significant loss (P < 0.0001) [19].
  • All basement membranes showed CCG labeling, with considerable variations in labeling densities between PT (124 +/- 8.8/micron 2) and DT (52 +/- 1.8/micron 2), as well as between tubules and Bowman's capsule (P < 0.0001) [19].

Associations of Colloidal gold with other chemical compounds

  • Colloidal gold-labeled antibody staining of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a liver-specific mitochondrial enzyme, and catalase, a peroxisomal enzyme, first appeared 60 hours and 4.5 days postregeneration, respectively [20].
  • Colloidal gold particles were restricted to endothelial cells, showing an asymmetric labelling pattern, which was always characterized by markedly higher density of immunolabelling of the abluminal rather than the luminal plasmalemma [21].

Gene context of Colloidal gold

  • Colloidal gold labeling was also performed using an anti-human myocilin polyclonal antibody [22].
  • Colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry with antibodies directed against the insulin receptor, IGF-I receptor and IGF-I ligand has confirmed the presence of these molecules in bovine blastocysts [23].
  • Colloidal gold immunocytochemistry was used to quantify the human PAI-1 antigen at 7, 20, 34, and 49 weeks of ZnSO4 administration [24].
  • The following experimental procedure was employed: Colloidal gold particles, varying in size from approximately 20 to 170 A in diameter were coated with nucleoplasmin, a 165,000-mol-wt karyophilic protein, which is known to be transported through the envelope [25].
  • Colloidal gold to which rat transferrin was adsorbed was used as an electron microscopical marker in order to follow the route taken by internalised transferrin across the visceral yolk sac [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Colloidal gold


  1. Colloidal gold particles as a new in vivo marker of early acute lung injury. Heckel, K., Kiefmann, R., Dörger, M., Stoeckelhuber, M., Goetz, A.E. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrastructural localization of L and NS enzyme subunits on vesicular stomatitis virus RNPs using gold sphere-staphylococcal protein A-monospecific IgG conjugates. Harmon, S.A., Robinson, E.N., Summers, D.F. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. The determination of lymph shed by colloidal gold scanning in patients with malignant melanoma: a preliminary study. Fee, H.J., Robinson, D.S., Sample, W.F., Graham, L.S., Holmes, E.C., Morton, D.L. Surgery (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Electron microscopic identification of rotavirus group antigen with gold-labelled monoclonal IgG. Martin, M.L., Palmer, E.L. Arch. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. In vivo-like antigenic surface properties of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis induced upon growth in milk whey. Mamo, W., Fröman, G. Microbiol. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The supramolecular organization of fibrillin-rich microfibrils. Baldock, C., Koster, A.J., Ziese, U., Rock, M.J., Sherratt, M.J., Kadler, K.E., Shuttleworth, C.A., Kielty, C.M. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The permeability of the nuclear envelope in dividing and nondividing cell cultures. Feldherr, C.M., Akin, D. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Svp25, a synaptic vesicle membrane glycoprotein from Torpedo electric organ that binds calcium and forms a homo-oligomeric complex. Volknandt, W., Schläfer, M., Bonzelius, F., Zimmermann, H. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Vesicular localization of immunoreactive [Met5]enkephalin in the globus pallidus. Coulter, H.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Three-dimensional immunogold localization of alpha-actinin within the cytoskeletal networks of cultured cardiac muscle and nonmuscle cells. Isobe, Y., Warner, F.D., Lemanski, L.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Colloidal gold--low density lipoprotein conjugates as membrane receptor probes. Handley, D.A., Arbeeny, C.M., Witte, L.D., Chien, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytochalasin D and E: effects on fibrinogen receptor movement and cytoskeletal reorganization in fully spread, surface-activated platelets: a correlative light and electron microscopic investigation. Olorundare, O.E., Simmons, S.R., Albrecht, R.M. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects galactosyltransferase activity and glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus of fetal rat hepatocytes. Renau-Piqueras, J., Guasch, R., Azorín, I., Seguí, J.M., Guerri, C. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Self-assembled nanoparticle probes for recognition and detection of biomolecules. Maxwell, D.J., Taylor, J.R., Nie, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Signal-mediated nuclear transport in the amoeba. Feldherr, C.M., Akin, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Advanced glycation end-product receptor interactions on microvascular cells occur within caveolin-rich membrane domains. Stitt, A.W., Burke, G.A., Chen, F., McMullen, C.B., Vlassara, H. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatic metabolism of colloidal gold-low-density lipoprotein complexes in the rat: evidence for bulk excretion of lysosomal contents into bile. Renaud, G., Hamilton, R.L., Havel, R.J. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Elimination of terminal complement intermediates from the plasma membrane of nucleated cells: the rate of disappearance differs for cells carrying C5b-7 or C5b-8 or a mixture of C5b-8 with a limited number of C5b-9. Carney, D.F., Koski, C.L., Shin, M.L. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Distribution of glycosaminoglycans in rat renal tubular epithelium. Weinstein, T., Gafter, U., Chagnac, A., Skutelsky, E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Transdifferentiation of ductular cells into hepatocytes in regenerating hamster pancreas. Makino, T., Usuda, N., Rao, S., Reddy, J.K., Scarpelli, D.G. Lab. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Glucose transporter (GLUT-1) distribution in the brain vessels of the adult Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula. Lazzari, M., Franceschini, V. Acta Histochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Distribution of myocilin and extracellular matrix components in the juxtacanalicular tissue of human eyes. Ueda, J., Wentz-Hunter, K., Yue, B.Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and glucose transporters: temporal patterns of gene expression in early murine and bovine embryos. Schultz, G.A., Hogan, A., Watson, A.J., Smith, R.M., Heyner, S. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 overexpression in retinal microvessels of PAI-1 transgenic mice. Grant, M.B., Spoerri, P.E., Player, D.W., Bush, D.M., Ellis, E.A., Caballero, S., Robison, W.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Movement of a karyophilic protein through the nuclear pores of oocytes. Feldherr, C.M., Kallenbach, E., Schultz, N. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Maternal transferrin uptake by and transfer across the visceral yolk sac of the early postimplantation rat conceptus in vitro. Huxham, I.M., Beck, F. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of the chemical architecture of carbon-fiber microelectrodes. 1. Carboxylates. Pantano, P., Kuhr, W.G. Anal. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Colloidal gold particles as an incompressible atomic force microscope imaging standard for assessing the compressibility of biomolecules. Vesenka, J., Manne, S., Giberson, R., Marsh, T., Henderson, E. Biophys. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Gold nanoparticles for microfluidics-based biosensing of PCR products by hybridization-induced fluorescence quenching. Li, Y.T., Liu, H.S., Lin, H.P., Chen, S.H. Electrophoresis (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Colloidal gold fluorescent microspheres: a new retrograde marker visualized by light and electron microscopy. Quattrochi, J.J., Madison, R., Sidman, R.L., Kljavin, I. Exp. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. A simple method for comparing immunogold distributions in two or more experimental groups illustrated using GLUT1 labelling of isolated trophoblast cells. Mayhew, T.M., Desoye, G. Placenta (2004) [Pubmed]
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