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Chemical Compound Review

Fat Ponceau     (1E)-1-[[2-methyl-4-(2...

Synonyms: Scarlet ReR, Sudan BB, ARONIS24133, AC1NTEX4, Solvent red 24, ...
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Disease relevance of Sudan IV


High impact information on Sudan IV


Biological context of Sudan IV


Anatomical context of Sudan IV

  • The aorta and right coronary arteries were stained with Sudan IV and the degree and extent of sudanophilia was quantitated by image analysis [13].
  • Fifteen basilar arteries were obtained at autopsy (age--61 +/- 2; males--6, females--9; black--6, white--9), fixed in formalin, opened along the ventral aspect and stained grossly with Sudan IV to delineate fat-containing lesions [14].
  • Eosinophil distribution was assessed using Scarlet Red stain and a polyclonal antibody recognizing eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) [15].
  • Four rings of thoracic aorta were used for tension studies; these rings and the aortas from the aortic arch to bifurcation were then fixed in formol and stained with Sudan IV to determine the area of luminal atherosclerotic lesions by a computerized laser-scanning approach [16].
  • In a combined autopsy and surgical study, we evaluated Sudan IV staining in 73 persons with normal parathyroid glands and 13 patients with hyperfunctioning glands [17].

Associations of Sudan IV with other chemical compounds

  • An accurate method based on the use of reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry interfaced with electrospray (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was devised for the determination of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV in hot chilli food samples [18].
  • Fluorescence of intracellular lamellae was quenched with Sudan black B and enhanced with Sudan IV thus providing evidence for the suberized nature of a tissue heretofore regarded as nonsuberized [19].

Gene context of Sudan IV

  • Moreover, Sudan IV staining revealed an increase in aortic atherosclerotic plaque surface (24.3+/-5.2% [PBS] versus 38.2+/-9.5% [MCP-1]; P<0.01) [20].
  • Arteries stained with Sudan IV for gross evaluation were subsequently processed for SEM and TEM [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sudan IV


  1. Aminoguanidine has an anti-atherogenic effect in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Panagiotopoulos, S., O'Brien, R.C., Bucala, R., Cooper, M.E., Jerums, G. Atherosclerosis (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Maternal atherogenic diet in swine is protective against early atherosclerosis development in offspring consuming an atherogenic diet post-natally. Norman, J.F., LeVeen, R.F. Atherosclerosis (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of obesity per se on plasma lipid and aortic responses to diet in swine. Pond, W.G., Mersmann, H.J., Yen, J.T. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Monitoring of aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in native and non-native males of Yakutsk over 40 years. Zhdanov, V.S., Sternby, N.H., Voronova, O.V., Galakhov, I.E., Argunov, V.A. Atherosclerosis (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of Biobrane and Scarlet Red dressings for treatment of donor site wounds. Zapata-Sirvent, R., Hansbrough, J.F., Carroll, W., Johnson, R., Wakimoto, A. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Embolic pneumopathy induced by oleic acid. A systematic morphologic study. Derks, C.M., Jacobovitz-Derks, D. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Progesterone and dexamethasone stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitors and progenitors for adipocytes and macrophages in cell populations derived from adult rat vertebrae. Ishida, Y., Tertinegg, I., Heersche, J.N. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Verapamil suppresses atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Rouleau, J.L., Parmley, W.W., Stevens, J., Wikman-Coffelt, J., Sievers, R., Mahley, R.W., Havel, R.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Dyslipidemia and vascular dysfunction in diabetic pigs fed an atherogenic diet. Dixon, J.L., Stoops, J.D., Parker, J.L., Laughlin, M.H., Weisman, G.A., Sturek, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates adipocyte differentiation in cultures of fetal rat calvaria cells: comparison with the effects of dexamethasone. Bellows, C.G., Wang, Y.H., Heersche, J.N., Aubin, J.E. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of atherogenesis in LDLR knockout mice by systemic delivery of adeno-associated virus type 2-hIL-10. Liu, Y., Li, D., Chen, J., Xie, J., Bandyopadhyay, S., Zhang, D., Nemarkommula, A.R., Liu, H., Mehta, J.L., Hermonat, P.L. Atherosclerosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Difference between deep seawater and surface seawater in the preventive effect of atherosclerosis. Miyamura, M., Yoshioka, S., Hamada, A., Takuma, D., Yokota, J., Kusunose, M., Kyotani, S., Kawakita, H., Odani, K., Tsutsui, Y., Nishioka, Y. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Cocaine: an independent risk factor for aortic sudanophilia. A preliminary report. Kolodgie, F.D., Virmani, R., Cornhill, J.F., Herderick, E.E., Malcom, G.T., Mergner, W.J. Atherosclerosis (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Localization of atherosclerotic lesions in the human basilar artery. Cornhill, J.F., Akins, D., Hutson, M., Chandler, A.B. Atherosclerosis (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction, distribution and modulation of upper airway allergic inflammation in mice. Hussain, I., Randolph, D., Brody, S.L., Song, S.K., Hsu, A., Kahn, A.M., Chaplin, D.D., Hamilos, D.L. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. In vivo effects of pentaerythrityl-tetranitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate on the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Kojda, G., Stein, D., Kottenberg, E., Schnaith, E.M., Noack, E. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Sudan IV stain. Its limitations in evaluating parathyroid functional status. Dufour, D.R., Durkowski, C. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Development and in-house validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV in hot chilli products. Calbiani, F., Careri, M., Elviri, L., Mangia, A., Pistarà, L., Zagnoni, I. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of impervious tissue in tree bark with selective histochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. Biggs, A.R. Stain technology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Local monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 therapy increases collateral artery formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice but induces systemic monocytic CD11b expression, neointimal formation, and plaque progression. van Royen, N., Hoefer, I., Böttinger, M., Hua, J., Grundmann, S., Voskuil, M., Bode, C., Schaper, W., Buschmann, I., Piek, J.J. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Morphologic characteristics of naturally occurring atherosclerosis in the brachiocephalic artery of the pigeon. Barr, D.A., Jerome, W.G., Lewis, J.C. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Acetylated low-density lipoprotein-encapsulated cholesteryl 1,3-diiopanoate glyceryl ether for the detection of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Xiao, W., Scott, T.M., Feng, L., Yu, Z., Wang, L., Hughes, J.A., Liu, H. J. Nucl. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of nicardipine on lipid peroxidation in rabbits given 2% cholesterol diet. Ismail, N.M., Jaarin, K., Vasudevan, S.K., Hashim, S. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Epidermal hyperplasia induced in guinea pig flank skin by intradermal injection of Sudan red. Stenn, K.S. Dermatologica (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Unique inflammatory features noted in intraorally transferred skin flaps: correlation with Candida albicans infection. Katou, F., Motegi, K., Tagami, H., Shirai, N., Echigo, S., Nagura, H. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (1999) [Pubmed]
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