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Gene Review

Prg2  -  proteoglycan 2, bone marrow

Mus musculus

Synonyms: BMPG, Bone marrow proteoglycan, MBP, Mbp-1, Proteoglycan 2, ...
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Disease relevance of Prg2


Psychiatry related information on Prg2

  • In order to assess the role of idiotype (Id) and the anti-Id network in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Id-bearing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to human myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide acetyl 1-9, as well as mAb anti-Id, were developed in EAE-susceptible PL/J mice (H-2u) [5].

High impact information on Prg2

  • Transgenic mice were constructed expressing genes encoding a rearranged T cell receptor specific for myelin basic protein (MBP) [6].
  • We have characterized TH cell reactivity in B10.PL and PL/J (H-2u) mice to 39 N-terminal MBP peptide derivatives of different lengths and with individual amino acid substitutions [7].
  • Immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a prototype of CD4+ T-cell mediated autoimmune disease [8].
  • To investigate when and where oligodendrocytes are first triggered to repair CNS myelin in such disease, we have used a complementary DNA probe specific for one major myelin protein gene, myelin basic protein (MBP), which hybridizes with the four forms of MBP messenger RNA in rodents [4].
  • Our results suggest that in mice, glial cells react to a demyelinating process with widespread MBP mRNA synthesis which may be triggered by a diffusible factor released in the demyelinated areas [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prg2


Biological context of Prg2

  • The murine eosinophil major basic protein gene (Prg2) maps to chromosome 2 [12].
  • The genomic structure and nucleotide sequence of the mMBP exons are well conserved with the human gene, although homology alignments of the encoded proteins show that extensive sequence conservation occurs only in the mature portion of the MBP molecules [13].
  • The relationship between eosinophils and the development of Ag-induced pulmonary pathologies, including airway hyper-responsiveness, was investigated using mice deficient for the secondary granule component, major basic protein-1 (mMBP-1) [14].
  • The gene encoding mMBP was isolated using a hMBP cDNA clone as a heterologous probe in low criteria screens of mouse genomic and cDNA libraries [13].
  • Furthermore, OVA-specific T cells retained a naive phenotype and did not transcribe Th1 cytokines, in contrast to MBP-specific T cells [15].

Anatomical context of Prg2


Associations of Prg2 with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, OVA sensitization/aerosol challenge of wild-type and mMBP-1(-/-) mice resulted in identical dose-response changes to either methacholine or serotonin [14].
  • Both sensitization and allergen challenge resulted in an increase in the number of cells expressing major basic protein (MBP) (p < 0.05) [20].
  • Eosinophil distribution was assessed using Scarlet Red stain and a polyclonal antibody recognizing eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) [21].
  • The topology of the three epitopes implicates asparagine endopeptidase as the enzyme that controls recognition of this region of MBP [22].
  • 14 of 18 (78%) NH2-terminal MBP-specific clones examined express a member of the TCR V beta 8 subfamily [23].

Other interactions of Prg2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prg2


  1. Eosinophils alter colonic epithelial barrier function: role for major basic protein. Furuta, G.T., Nieuwenhuis, E.E., Karhausen, J., Gleich, G., Blumberg, R.S., Lee, J.J., Ackerman, S.J. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative structure, proximal promoter elements, and chromosome location of the human eosinophil major basic protein genes. Plager, D.A., Weiler, D.A., Loegering, D.A., Johnson, W.B., Haley, L., Eddy, R.L., Shows, T.B., Gleich, G.J. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of murine loci associated with susceptibility to chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Sundvall, M., Jirholt, J., Yang, H.T., Jansson, L., Engström, A., Pettersson, U., Holmdahl, R. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased levels of myelin basic protein transcripts in virus-induced demyelination. Kristensson, K., Holmes, K.V., Duchala, C.S., Zeller, N.K., Lazzarini, R.A., Dubois-Dalcq, M. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Interstrain cross-reactive idiotypes on monoclonal antibodies to an encephalitogenic myelin basic protein peptide. Zhou, S.R., Whitaker, J.N. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Transgenic mice that express a myelin basic protein-specific T cell receptor develop spontaneous autoimmunity. Goverman, J., Woods, A., Larson, L., Weiner, L.P., Hood, L., Zaller, D.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Autoimmune T cells: immune recognition of normal and variant peptide epitopes and peptide-based therapy. Urban, J.L., Horvath, S.J., Hood, L. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Spreading of T-cell autoimmunity to cryptic determinants of an autoantigen. Lehmann, P.V., Forsthuber, T., Miller, A., Sercarz, E.E. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. A polyalanine peptide with only five native myelin basic protein residues induces autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Gautam, A.M., Pearson, C.I., Smilek, D.E., Steinman, L., McDevitt, H.O. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid prevents inflammatory cell invasion into the central nervous system in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis through maintenance of blood-central nervous system barrier integrity. Kean, R.B., Spitsin, S.V., Mikheeva, T., Scott, G.S., Hooper, D.C. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Desferrioxamine suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced by MBP in SJL mice. Pedchenko, T.V., LeVine, S.M. J. Neuroimmunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The murine eosinophil major basic protein gene (Prg2) maps to chromosome 2. Denzler, K.L., Levin, W.J., Quiram, P.A., Lee, N.A., Lee, J.J. Mamm. Genome (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The identification and cloning of a murine major basic protein gene expressed in eosinophils. Larson, K.A., Horton, M.A., Madden, B.J., Gleich, G.J., Lee, N.A., Lee, J.J. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Eosinophil major basic protein-1 does not contribute to allergen-induced airway pathologies in mouse models of asthma. Denzler, K.L., Farmer, S.C., Crosby, J.R., Borchers, M., Cieslewicz, G., Larson, K.A., Cormier-Regard, S., Lee, N.A., Lee, J.J. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Naive T lymphocytes traffic to inflamed central nervous system, but require antigen recognition for activation. Krakowski, M.L., Owens, T. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The thymus plays a role in oral tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Song, F., Guan, Z., Gienapp, I.E., Shawler, T., Benson, J., Whitacre, C.C. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Lack of eosinophil peroxidase or major basic protein impairs defense against murine filarial infection. Specht, S., Saeftel, M., Arndt, M., Endl, E., Dubben, B., Lee, N.A., Lee, J.J., Hoerauf, A. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-sensitized T cells produces chronic relapsing demyelinating disease in mice. Mokhtarian, F., McFarlin, D.E., Raine, C.S. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Chen, Y., Kuchroo, V.K., Inobe, J., Hafler, D.A., Weiner, H.L. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Interleukin-5 expression in the bone marrow of sensitized Balb/c mice after allergen challenge. Minshall, E.M., Schleimer, R., Cameron, L., Minnicozzi, M., Egan, R.W., Gutierrez-Ramos, J.C., Eidelman, D.H., Hamid, Q. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction, distribution and modulation of upper airway allergic inflammation in mice. Hussain, I., Randolph, D., Brody, S.L., Song, S.K., Hsu, A., Kahn, A.M., Chaplin, D.D., Hamilos, D.L. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of a dominant cryptic epitope on autoimmune T cell tolerance. Anderton, S.M., Viner, N.J., Matharu, P., Lowrey, P.A., Wraith, D.C. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Predominant expression of a T cell receptor V beta gene subfamily in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Zamvil, S.S., Mitchell, D.J., Lee, N.E., Moore, A.C., Waldor, M.K., Sakai, K., Rothbard, J.B., McDevitt, H.O., Steinman, L., Acha-Orbea, H. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a new murine eosinophil major basic protein (mMBP) gene: cloning and characterization of mMBP-2. Macias, M.P., Welch, K.C., Denzler, K.L., Larson, K.A., Lee, N.A., Lee, J.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Development and functional analysis of eosinophils from murine embryonic stem cells. Hamaguchi-Tsuru, E., Nobumoto, A., Hirose, N., Kataoka, S., Fujikawa-Adachi, K., Furuya, M., Tominaga, A. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Eosinophil major basic protein: first identified natural heparanase-inhibiting protein. Temkin, V., Aingorn, H., Puxeddu, I., Goldshmidt, O., Zcharia, E., Gleich, G.J., Vlodavsky, I., Levi-Schaffer, F. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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