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Chemical Compound Review

Sudan 3     (1E)-1-[(4- phenyldiazenylphenyl) hydrazinyl...

Synonyms: Sudan G, Cerasin Red, AC1NTEIY, Sudan III, ARONIS24971, ...
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Disease relevance of Sudan Red III

  • The capacity of various Sudan III-related chemicals to prevent DMBA-induced CA paralleled their capacity to prevent DMBA-induced adrenal apoplexy and mammary cancer [1].
  • The suppressive effect of Sudan III on DMBA-induced CA paralleled the dose rate of Sudan III when given in the range between 1 and 10 mg Sudan III/kg body weight; higher doses produced no additional suppression [1].
  • A single feeding of 1 mg of Sudan III prevented fatal toxicity in all members of large groups of rats injected with massive doses of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, but 50% of the survivors developed leukemia; unprotected rats succumbed in 1--3 days [2].
  • Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days [3].
  • We have determined the effect of beta-naphthoflavone and the azo dye, sudan III, on the level of quinone reductase mRNA in a responsive rat hepatoma cell line [4].

High impact information on Sudan Red III


Chemical compound and disease context of Sudan Red III


Biological context of Sudan Red III


Anatomical context of Sudan Red III


Associations of Sudan Red III with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Sudan Red III

  • An adipocytic phenotype was observed in BMP-2-treated cells, as shown by upregulation of two adipocytic marker mRNAs, PPAR-gamma and aP2, and by staining of lipid-filled cell vesicles with Oil Red O [25].
  • Some of the Sca-1+ cells expressed alkaline phosphatase after osteogenic induction and were stained with Oil-Red O after adipogenic induction [26].
  • Treatment in vitro of GO orbital preadipocytes with recombinant sFRP-1 (100 nm) significantly increased adiponectin (2.0-fold; P < 0.05), leptin (7-fold; P < 0.002), and TSH receptor mRNA (13-fold; P < 0.003) levels and enhanced Oil red-O staining in the cultures [27].
  • Judging by Oil Red O staining for lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers, we determined that, unlike the full-length Pref-1A and the constructed large soluble form, the artificial membrane form of Pref-1 lacking the processing site proximal to the membrane was not effective in inhibiting adipogenesis [28].
  • Histological analysis with Oil Red O staining demonstrated that there was considerable accumulation of lipid in the skin of TNX-deficient (TNX-/-) mice [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sudan Red III

  • MEASUREMENTS: Quantitative measurement of fecal fat by the van de Kamer titration, van de Kamer gravimetric, and Jeejeebhoy gravimetric methods and qualitative assessment of fecal fat by Sudan III staining [30].
  • This analogue was used in the study of the distribution by low-kVp X-ray examination, Sudan III staining, and autoradiography [31].
  • Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining [3].
  • Cells were recovered for Oil Red O (ORO) staining as well as immunocytochemistry for milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin [32].
  • We found a correlation between the number of Oil Red O-stained macrophages in sputum and lavage fluid (Spearman's coefficient: rho = 0.657, p < 0.018) [13].


  1. Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells after treatment with Sudan III and related azo dyes. Ito, Y., Maeda, S., Fujihara, T., Ueda, N., Sugiyama, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Azo dyes prevent hydrocarbon-induced leukemia in the rat. Huggins, C.B., Ueda, N., Russo, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study. Schwartz, C.J., Ghidoni, J.J., Kelley, J.L., Sprague, E.A., Valente, A.J., Suenram, C.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Rat liver NAD(P)H: Quinone reductase. Regulation of quinone reductase gene expression by planar aromatic compounds and determination of the exon structure of the quinone reductase structural gene. Bayney, R.M., Morton, M.R., Favreau, L.V., Pickett, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Disruption of hedgehog signaling reveals a novel role in intestinal morphogenesis and intestinal-specific lipid metabolism in mice. Wang, L.C., Nassir, F., Liu, Z.Y., Ling, L., Kuo, F., Crowell, T., Olson, D., Davidson, N.O., Burkly, L.C. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Transdifferentiation of mouse aortic smooth muscle cells to a macrophage-like state after cholesterol loading. Rong, J.X., Shapiro, M., Trogan, E., Fisher, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Antiretroviral drugs with adverse effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism and survival alter the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adiponectin in vitro. Lagathu, C., Bastard, J.P., Auclair, M., Maachi, M., Kornprobst, M., Capeau, J., Caron, M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae--induced macrophage foam cell formation is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2. Cao, F., Castrillo, A., Tontonoz, P., Re, F., Byrne, G.I. Infect. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Primary chylopericardium. Kannagi, T., Osakada, G., Wakabayashi, A., Kawai, C., Matsuda, M., Miki, S. Chest (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Possible mechanism of Sudan III-induced prevention of chemical carcinogenesis in rats. Fujita, S., Matsunaga, T., Masubuchi, Y., Suzuki, T. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. VEGF is crucial for the hepatic vascular development required for lipoprotein uptake. Carpenter, B., Lin, Y., Stoll, S., Raffai, R.L., McCuskey, R., Wang, R. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 and insulin resistance: acute effect of fatty acids. Hoeks, J., Hesselink, M.K., Russell, A.P., Mensink, M., Saris, W.H., Mensink, R.P., Schrauwen, P. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Induced sputum versus bronchoalveolar lavage during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Lechapt, E., Habibi, A., Bachir, D., Galacteros, F., Schaeffer, A., Desvaux, D., Brochard, L., Housset, B., Godeau, B., Maitre, B. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Anti-HER2 antibody and heregulin suppress growth of HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells through different mechanisms. Le, X.F., McWatters, A., Wiener, J., Wu, J.Y., Mills, G.B., Bast, R.C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Blocking very late antigen-4 integrin decreases leukocyte entry and fatty streak formation in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Shih, P.T., Brennan, M.L., Vora, D.K., Territo, M.C., Strahl, D., Elices, M.J., Lusis, A.J., Berliner, J.A. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Histologic localization of lipid in the articular tissues in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. Ohira, T., Ishikawa, K., Masuda, I., Yokoyama, M., Honda, I. Arthritis Rheum. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of Sirt1 decreases adipocyte formation during osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bäckesjö, C.M., Li, Y., Lindgren, U., Haldosén, L.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Hereditary carnitine deficiency of muscle. VanDyke, D.H., Griggs, R.C., Markesbery, W., Dimauro, S. Neurology (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated interleukin-10 gene transfer inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Yoshioka, T., Okada, T., Maeda, Y., Ikeda, U., Shimpo, M., Nomoto, T., Takeuchi, K., Nonaka-Sarukawa, M., Ito, T., Takahashi, M., Matsushita, T., Mizukami, H., Hanazono, Y., Kume, A., Ookawara, S., Kawano, M., Ishibashi, S., Shimada, K., Ozawa, K. Gene Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Ascorbic acid phosphate stimulates type IV collagen synthesis and accelerates adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. Ono, M., Aratani, Y., Kitagawa, I., Kitagawa, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Further histochemical studies characterizing the lipofuscin component of human neuromelanin. Barden, H. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of liver endothelial and Kupffer cells in clearing low density lipoprotein from blood in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Nenseter, M.S., Gudmundsen, O., Roos, N., Maelandsmo, G., Drevon, C.A., Berg, T. J. Lipid Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Familial juvenile neuronal storage disease. New disease or variant of juvenile lipidosis? Itoyama, Y., Goto, I., Kuroiwa, Y., Takeichi, M., Kawabuchi, M., Tanaka, Y. Arch. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of specific cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes in the regio-selective metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in microsomes from rats treated with phenobarbital or Sudan III. McCord, A., Burnett, A.K., Wolf, C.R., Morrison, V., Craft, J.A. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. BMP-2 and sonic hedgehog have contrary effects on adipocyte-like differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. Zehentner, B.K., Leser, U., Burtscher, H. DNA Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Adult cardiac Sca-1-positive cells differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes. Matsuura, K., Nagai, T., Nishigaki, N., Oyama, T., Nishi, J., Wada, H., Sano, M., Toko, H., Akazawa, H., Sato, T., Nakaya, H., Kasanuki, H., Komuro, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Gene expression profiling of orbital adipose tissue from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy: a potential role for secreted frizzled-related protein-1 in orbital adipogenesis. Kumar, S., Leontovich, A., Coenen, M.J., Bahn, R.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Only the large soluble form of preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1), but not the small soluble and membrane forms, inhibits adipocyte differentiation: role of alternative splicing. Mei, B., Zhao, L., Chen, L., Sul, H.S. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Triglyceride accumulation and altered composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids in the skin of tenascin-X-deficient mice. Matsumoto, K., Sato, T., Oka, S., Orba, Y., Sawa, H., Kabayama, K., Inokuchi, J., Ariga, H. Genes Cells (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Positive results on tests for steatorrhea in persons consuming olestra potato chips. Balasekaran, R., Porter, J.L., Santa Ana, C.A., Fordtran, J.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Use of oily contrast medium for selective drug targeting to tumor: enhanced therapeutic effect and X-ray image. Iwai, K., Maeda, H., Konno, T. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. A novel diagnostic method for pulmonary aspiration in a murine model. Immunocytochemical staining of milk proteins in alveolar macrophages. Elidemir, O., Fan, L.L., Colasurdo, G.N. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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