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Chemical Compound Review

AC1O3S20     calcium; carbonic acid

Synonyms: 14791-73-2, Aragonite (Ca(CO3))
This record was replaced with 767.
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Disease relevance of carbonic acid

  • Colonial hard coral polyps cover the surface of the reef and deposit calcium carbonate as the aragonite polymorph, stabilized into a continuous calcareous skeleton [1].
  • In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals [2].
  • The three polymorphs of calcium carbonate, vaterite, aragonite and calcite therefore appear to precipitate in vivo mixed with each other in various proportions and/or with the other constituents of human gall stones [3].
  • As a result of increased chemical weathering and/or greenhouse effects, increased temperatures coupled with enhanced productivity could result in wider-spread oceanic anoxia or altered calcite/aragonite stability [4].

High impact information on carbonic acid

  • Despite a high mineral content of about 99% (by volume) of aragonite, the shell of Strombus gigas can thus be considered a 'ceramic plywood' and can guide the biomimetic design of tough, lightweight structures [5].
  • The data suggest that seawater had high Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios (>2.5) and relatively high Na+ concentrations during the Late Precambrian [544 to 543 million years ago (Ma)], Permian (258 to 251 Ma), and Tertiary through the present (40 to 0 Ma), when aragonite and MgSO4 salts were the dominant marine precipitates [6].
  • A doublet peak in the Fourier transform of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure of the coral corresponded to six metal and 13 oxygen neighbors surrounding strontium at about 4.05 angstroms in strontium-substituted aragonite and at about 4.21 angstroms in strontianite [7].
  • At WOL C(4) abundance was negatively correlated with aragonite/calcite, suggesting that severe moisture deficits suppressed C(4) plants in favor of weedy C(3) plants (e.g., Ambrosia) [8].
  • In adherent multicellular isolate cultures, enzyme activation was followed by precipitation of aragonite [1].

Biological context of carbonic acid

  • The interface of bone and aragonite nacre (Margaritifera, fresh water pearl mussel) was studied by in situ hybridization and a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemical assay [9].
  • Also, as the shell undergoes a change of calcium carbonate polymorphs from aragonite to calcite, significant alterations of the protein conformation with the denaturing of alpha-helix and beta-structure in the aragonitic layer is induced [10].
  • An optimal temperature for the formation of aragonite was found to be ca. 60 degrees C. Slow dissolution kinetics of sparingly dissoluble salt also is very important for controlling PCC polymorphism and morphology [11].
  • The role of vaterite and aragonite in the formation of pseudo-biogenic carbonate structures: implications for Martian exobiology [12].

Anatomical context of carbonic acid

  • Differential occurrence of vaterite and aragonite in otoliths is believed to account for some of the observed effects as a result of otolith density differences [13].
  • We cultured primary hippocampal astrocytes on a crystalline three-dimensional (3D) aragonite biomatrix prepared from the exoskeleton of the coral Porites lutea [14].
  • The findings of the present study suggest that neuronal networks growing in a strong 3D aragonite support may find application as tissue replacement material for the central nervous system [15].
  • In addition, under the conditions of culture used, nacre can also promote the formation by osteoblasts of a structure with characteristics similar to nacre (e.g., lamellar organic matrix mineralized with aragonite, as demonstrated by Laser Raman Spectroscopy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[16]
  • The X-ray diffraction data indicated that these two populations consist of calcite and aragonite; the endolymphatic sac, the saccule and the lagena contain aragonite, whereas calcite is only found in the otolithic membrane of the utricle [17].

Associations of carbonic acid with other chemical compounds

  • An x-ray spectroscopic study of scleractinian coral skeletons indicated that, although some strontium substitutes for calcium in the aragonite structure, at concentrations of about 7500 parts per million, as much as 40 percent of the strontium resides in strontianite (SrCO3) [7].
  • Within 24-72 h, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and zinc decrease until approximately 0.5 microM, and the presence of aragonite buffers the solution to a pH above 8 avoiding redissolution [18].
  • Formation of thin calcium carbonate films with aragonite and vaterite forms coexisting with polyacrylic acids and chitosan membranes [19].
  • The highly channeled structure and the use of fresh cuttlefish bones favored the diffusion of the reaction solution towards the aragonite resulting in fast kinetics (after 1 h, hydroxyapatite was the dominant crystalline phase) [20].

Gene context of carbonic acid

  • The objective of this work was to study the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase, osteonectin, and osteocalcin expression of human bone marrow cells cultured on CaCO3 crystallized both in the aragonite form (natural coral) and in the calcite form (natural coral modified by heating) [21].
  • 13C CP/MAS NMR and FE/TEM measurements of the aragonite brick of the nacreous layer of Pinctada fucata indicate that it assembles with highly oriented aragonite nanocrystals, which are regulated by biopolymers [22].
  • The in vitro crystallization experiments revealed that the mixture of N66 and N14 could induce platy aragonite layers highly similar to the nacreous layer, once adsorbed onto the membrane of the water-insoluble matrix [23].
  • After treatment with proteinase K, no growth of orientated aragonite needles was detected [24].
  • In vitro crystallization experiments showed that p10 could accelerate the nucleation of calcium carbonate crystals and induce aragonite formation, suggesting that it might play a key role in nacre biomineralization [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of carbonic acid


  1. Aragonite crystallization in primary cell cultures of multicellular isolates from a hard coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Domart-Coulon, I.J., Elbert, D.C., Scully, E.P., Calimlim, P.S., Ostrander, G.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus. Dove, A.D., LoBue, C., Bowser, P., Powell, M. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The polymorphs of calcium carbonate in human gall stones. Bogren, H.G. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Collisions with ice/volatile objects: geological implications--a qualitative treatment. Wilde, P., Quinby-Hunt, M.S. Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas. Kamat, S., Su, X., Ballarini, R., Heuer, A.H. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Lowenstein, T.K., Timofeeff, M.N., Brennan, S.T., Hardie, L.A., Demicco, R.V. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Strontianite in coral skeletal aragonite. Greegor, R.B., Pingitore, N.E., Lytle, F.W. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Response of C3 and C4 plants to middle-Holocene climatic variation near the prairie-forest ecotone of Minnesota. Nelson, D.M., Hu, F.S., Tian, J., Stefanova, I., Brown, T.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Tissue responses to nacreous implants in rat femur: an in situ hybridization and histochemical study. Liao, H., Mutvei, H., Hammarström, L., Wurtz, T., Li, J. Biomaterials (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A study of the correlation between organic matrices and nanocomposite materials in oyster shell formation. Choi, C.S., Kim, Y.W. Biomaterials (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Supersaturation control in aragonite synthesis using sparingly soluble calcium sulfate as reactants. Hu, Z., Deng, Y. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of vaterite and aragonite in the formation of pseudo-biogenic carbonate structures: implications for Martian exobiology. Vecht, A., Ireland, T.G. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of formalin and ethanol preservation on otolith delta(18)O stable isotope signatures. Storm-Suke, A., Dempson, J.B., Caron, F., Power, M. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Aragonite crystalline biomatrices support astrocytic tissue formation in vitro and in vivo. Shany, B., Peretz, H., Blinder, P., Lichtenfeld, Y., Jeger, R., Vago, R., Baranes, D. Tissue Eng. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Growth of primary hippocampal neuronal tissue on an aragonite crystalline biomatrix. Shany, B., Vago, R., Baranes, D. Tissue engineering. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Nacre initiates biomineralization by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro. Silve, C., Lopez, E., Vidal, B., Smith, D.C., Camprasse, S., Camprasse, G., Couly, G. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Calcite in the statoconia of amphibians: a detailed analysis in the frog Rana esculenta. Marmo, F., Balsamo, G., Franco, E. Cell Tissue Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Removal of cadmium from wastewaters by aragonite shells and the influence of other divalent cations. Köhler, S.J., Cubillas, P., Rodríguez-Blanco, J.D., Bauer, C., Prieto, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Formation of thin calcium carbonate films with aragonite and vaterite forms coexisting with polyacrylic acids and chitosan membranes. Wada, N., Suda, S., Kanamura, K., Umegaki, T. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Hydrothermal growth of hydroxyapatite scaffolds from aragonitic cuttlefish bones. Rocha, J.H., Lemos, A.F., Agathopoulos, S., Kannan, S., Valério, P., Ferreira, J.M. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of proliferation and protein expression of human bone marrow cells cultured on coral crystallized in the aragonite of calcite form. Fricain, J.C., Bareille, R., Ulysse, F., Dupuy, B., Amedee, J. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Highly oriented aragonite nanocrystal-biopolymer composites in an aragonite brick of the nacreous layer of Pinctada fucata. Takahashi, K., Yamamoto, H., Onoda, A., Doi, M., Inaba, T., Chiba, M., Kobayashi, A., Taguchi, T., Okamura, T.A., Ueyama, N. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular mechanism of the nacreous layer formation in Pinctada maxima. Kono, M., Hayashi, N., Samata, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The nacre protein perlucin nucleates growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Blank, S., Arnoldi, M., Khoshnavaz, S., Treccani, L., Kuntz, M., Mann, K., Grathwohl, G., Fritz, M. Journal of microscopy. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. A Novel Matrix Protein p10 from the Nacre of Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata) and Its Effects on Both CaCO(3) Crystal Formation and Mineralogenic Cells. Zhang, C., Li, S., Ma, Z., Xie, L., Zhang, R. Mar. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Nanoscale anisotropic plastic deformation in single crystal aragonite. Kearney, C., Zhao, Z., Bruet, B.J., Radovitzky, R., Boyce, M.C., Ortiz, C. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Anisotropic lattice distortions in the mollusk-made aragonite: a widespread phenomenon. Pokroy, B., Fitch, A.N., Lee, P.L., Quintana, J.P., Caspi, E.N., Zolotoyabko, E. J. Struct. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Scanning electron microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of otoconia in the lizard Podarcis s. sicula. Marmo, F., Franco, E., Balsamo, G. Cell Tissue Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Seawater neutralization of alkaline bauxite residue and implications for revegetation. Menzies, N.W., Fulton, I.M., Morrell, W.J. J. Environ. Qual. (2004) [Pubmed]
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