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Chemical Compound Review

Aragonite     calcium carbonate

Synonyms: Aeromatt, Albaglos, Calseeds, Caltrate, Calcite, ...
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Disease relevance of carbonic acid


Psychiatry related information on carbonic acid

  • Benjamin Franklin: founder of cognitive therapy [6]?
  • Although it commonly is assumed that such clinical trials were developed in the 1930s, the first published report that used intentional subject ignorance and sham intervention was the result of a 1784 French royal commission investigation into mesmerism, headed by Benjamin Franklin [7].
  • Dementia in world leaders and its effects upon international events: the examples of Franklin D. Roosevelt and T. Woodrow Wilson [8].
  • To determine the frequency with which patients having some degree of phobic avoidance will discuss these fears with their physician and factors in their decision to discuss, a mailed survey was conducted in Franklin County, Ohio. Data from 32 respondents to a mental health questionnaire who met criteria for phobic avoidance were analyzed [9].
  • As part of an effort to improve services and outcomes for women with histories of trauma and co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders, the Franklin County Women and Violence Project sought to assess women's perceptions about their social roles and provide them with opportunities to adopt valued social roles [10].

High impact information on carbonic acid

  • Calcium carbonate maintained bone density at the femoral neck (mean change in bone density, 0.08 +/- 0.98 percent) and radius (0.24 +/- 0.70 percent) but not the spine (-2.54 +/- 0.85 percent) [11].
  • The external surface of even non-biomineralized cuticle was preserved by entombment in volcanic ash, subsequent incorporation into concretions, and infilling of the fossils with sparry calcite [12].
  • As a useful proxy, the oxygen isotope composition (delta18O) of calcite from planktonic foraminifera has been shown to reflect both surface temperature and seawater delta18O, itself an indicator of global ice volume and salinity [13].
  • These high-precision measurements were made on natural Iceland spar calcite cleaved along the (1014) plane and reacted with a dilute aqueous lead solution [14].
  • Calcium carbonate saturation in human pancreatic juice: possible role of ductal H+ secretion [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of carbonic acid


Biological context of carbonic acid


Anatomical context of carbonic acid

  • In mammals, otoconia are composed of proteins (otoconins) and calcium carbonate crystals in a calcite lattice [26].
  • Human lithostathine, a protein synthesized by the pancreas, inhibits the growth of calcite crystals by inducing a habit modification: the rhombohedral (10 14) usual habit is transformed into a needle-like habit through the (11 0) crystal form [27].
  • Calcite crystals therefore may occur, obstruct pancreatic ducts, and finally cause a lithiasis [27].
  • We have demonstrated previously the presence of a Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport pathway in HT29 cells (Kim, H.D., Tsai, Y-S., Franklin, C.C., and Turner, J.T. (1989) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 946, 397-404) [28].
  • We show that calcite binds A6 Xenopus laevis epithelial cells rapidly and efficiently, most likely via surface-adsorbed proteins [25].

Associations of carbonic acid with other chemical compounds

  • Conversely, seawater had low Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios (<2.3) and relatively low Na+ concentrations during the Cambrian (540 to 520 Ma), Silurian (440 to 418 Ma), and Cretaceous (124 to 94 Ma), when calcite was the dominant nonskeletal carbonate and K-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing chloride salts, were the only potash evaporites [29].
  • It is believed that the polymorphism observed in calcium carbonate crystals, such as aragonite and calcite in mollusk shells, is controlled by organic matrix proteins secreted from the mantle epithelia [30].
  • In pancreatic juice, calcite precipitation is prevented by lithostathine, a glycoprotein that inhibits calcite crystal growth [31].
  • Crystallization of calcite from different concentrated calcium chloride solutions by the CO(2) vapor diffusion technique in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) yields defined assemblies of nanoparticles with unusual morphology [32].
  • Whereas the morphology of the calcite aggregates could be fine-tuned by using copolymers with different sulfonate content, the spatial distribution of the ionic functional groups alters the course of crystallization [33].

Gene context of carbonic acid

  • Ovocleidin-116 thus is a candidate molecule for the regulation of calcite growth during eggshell calcification [34].
  • Oltipraz is an effective inducer of mEH in rats (Lamb Franklin, 2000), and thus induction of this pathway in humans could also potentially contribute to the protective effects of this drug toward AFB genotoxicity [35].
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mechanical disorder of the vestibular system in which calcite particles called otoconia interfere with the mechanical functioning of the fluid-filled semicircular canals normally used to sense rotation [36].
  • Finally, we showed that the previously reported association of newly synthesized apoA-I and apoB (Zheng, H., Kiss, R. S., Franklin, V., Wang, M. D., Haidar, B., and Marcel, Y. L. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 21612-21621) occurs after secretion at the cell surface [37].
  • A closer examination of the growth of polycrystalline macroscopic CaCO3 spheres by TEM and time-resolved dynamic light scattering showed that CaCO3 macrocrystals are formed from strings of aggregated amorphous nanoparticles and then recrystallize as dumbbell-shaped or spherical calcite macrocrystal [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of carbonic acid


  1. Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Slatopolsky, E., Weerts, C., Lopez-Hilker, S., Norwood, K., Zink, M., Windus, D., Delmez, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Implications for therapy and prevention. Franklin County Pneumonia Study Group. Plouffe, J.F., Breiman, R.F., Facklam, R.R. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Calcium carbonate solubility in human common duct bile: calcium carbonate precipitation in gallstones. Cetta, F., Lombardo, F., Gargano, V., Malerba, M. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcium carbonate and constipation: a historical review of medical mythopoeia. Clemens, J.D., Feinstein, A.R. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Calcium carbonate-induced hypothyroidism. Butner, L.E., Fulco, P.P., Feldman, G. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Benjamin Franklin: founder of cognitive therapy? Frank, J.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The origins of modern clinical research. Green, S.A. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Dementia in world leaders and its effects upon international events: the examples of Franklin D. Roosevelt and T. Woodrow Wilson. Toole, J.F. Eur. J. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Patients' willingness to discuss phobic avoidance symptoms. Katerndahl, D.A. The Family practice research journal. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Social roles in women's lives: changing conceptions of self. Stenius, V.M., Veysey, B.M., Hamilton, Z., Andersen, R. The journal of behavioral health services & research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. Dawson-Hughes, B., Dallal, G.E., Krall, E.A., Sadowski, L., Sahyoun, N., Tannenbaum, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. An exceptionally preserved vermiform mollusc from the Silurian of England. Sutton, M.D., Briggs, D.E., Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Past temperature and delta18O of surface ocean waters inferred from foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios. Elderfield, H., Ganssen, G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Lattice location of trace elements within minerals and at their surfaces with X-ray standing waves. Qian, Y., Sturchio, N.C., Chiarello, R.P., Lyman, P.F., Lee, T.L., Bedzyk, M.J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Calcium carbonate saturation in human pancreatic juice: possible role of ductal H+ secretion. Gerolami, A., Marteau, C., Matteo, A., Sahel, J., Portugal, H., Pauli, A.M., Pastor, J., Sarles, H. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Formation of crystalline deposits by several genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Keefe, W.E. Infect. Immun. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Microbeam x-ray diffraction analysis of dental calculus. Kani, T., Kani, M., Moriwaki, Y., Doi, Y. J. Dent. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis: a study of potential nucleating agents for cholesterol crystal formation in bile. Whiting, M.J., Watts, J.M. Clin. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Calcium carbonate exacerbates glomerular capillary hypertension and injury in rats with desoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension. Dworkin, L.D., Feiner, H.D., Parker, M., Randazzo, J. Am. J. Hypertens. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. PL-promoted transcription of the promoter-proximal N-trp region is insensitive to chloramphenicol in the absence of N function. Nakamura, H., Yamamoto, T., Imamoto, F. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Calcium carbonate and L.U.D. pregnancies. Archer, R.D., Lewis, K.M., Zwirek, S.J. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Density matters: the semiconservative replication of DNA. Hanawalt, P.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs. Goldenfeld, N., Chan, P.Y., Veysey, J. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Bell, L., Halstenson, C.E., Halstenson, C.J., Macres, M., Keane, W.F. Arch. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Selective interactions of cells with crystal surfaces. Implications for the mechanism of cell adhesion. Hanein, D., Sabanay, H., Addadi, L., Geiger, B. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Otoconin-90, the mammalian otoconial matrix protein, contains two domains of homology to secretory phospholipase A2. Wang, Y., Kowalski, P.E., Thalmann, I., Ornitz, D.M., Mager, D.L., Thalmann, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Mechanism of calcite crystal growth inhibition by the N-terminal undecapeptide of lithostathine. Gerbaud, V., Pignol, D., Loret, E., Bertrand, J.A., Berland, Y., Fontecilla-Camps, J.C., Canselier, J.P., Gabas, N., Verdier, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport and [3H]bumetanide binding site density by phorbol esters in HT29 cells. Franklin, C.C., Turner, J.T., Kim, H.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Lowenstein, T.K., Timofeeff, M.N., Brennan, S.T., Hardie, L.A., Demicco, R.V. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. A carbonic anhydrase from the nacreous layer in oyster pearls. Miyamoto, H., Miyashita, T., Okushima, M., Nakano, S., Morita, T., Matsushiro, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Pancreatic lithostathine as a calcite habit modifier. Geider, S., Baronnet, A., Cerini, C., Nitsche, S., Astier, J.P., Michel, R., Boistelle, R., Berland, Y., Dagorn, J.C., Verdier, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Calcite mesocrystals: "morphing" crystals by a polyelectrolyte. Wang, T., Antonietti, M., Cölfen, H. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Morphogenetic control of calcite crystal growth in sulfonic acid based hydrogels. Grassmann, O., Löbmann, P. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular cloning and ultrastructural localization of the core protein of an eggshell matrix proteoglycan, ovocleidin-116. Hincke, M.T., Gautron, J., Tsang, C.P., McKee, M.D., Nys, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Interindividual differences in response to chemoprotection against aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: implications for human biotransformation enzyme polymorphisms. Eaton, D.L., Bammler, T.K., Kelly, E.J. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. A mathematical model for top-shelf vertigo: the role of sedimenting otoconia in BPPV. Squires, T.M., Weidman, M.S., Hain, T.C., Stone, H.A. Journal of biomechanics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Intracellular lipidation of newly synthesized apolipoprotein A-I in primary murine hepatocytes. Maric, J., Kiss, R.S., Franklin, V., Marcel, Y.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer. Cölfen, H., Qi, L. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. The role of Mg2+ as an impurity in calcite growth. Davis, K.J., Dove, P.M., De Yoreo, J.J. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Dissolution of pancreatic stones by oral trimethadione in a dog experimental model. Noda, A., Shibata, T., Ogawa, Y., Hayakawa, T., Kameya, S., Hiramatsu, E., Watanabe, T., Horiguchi, Y. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. Calcium carbonate and intrauterine devices. Davis, R.H. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  42. In vitro migratory potential of rat quiescent hepatic stellate cells and its augmentation by cell activation. Ikeda, K., Wakahara, T., Wang, Y.Q., Kadoya, H., Kawada, N., Kaneda, K. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Purification, characterization, and in vitro mineralization studies of a novel goose eggshell matrix protein, ansocalcin. Lakshminarayanan, R., Valiyaveettil, S., Rao, V.S., Kini, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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