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MeSH Review

Saccule and Utricle

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Disease relevance of Saccule and Utricle


Psychiatry related information on Saccule and Utricle


High impact information on Saccule and Utricle

  • In mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of Itga8 (encoding the alphabeta8 subunit), this co-localization is perturbed and hair cells in the utricle, a vestibular subcompartment, lack stereocilia or contain malformed stereocilia [7].
  • EM lectin staining in situ demonstrated galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine constituents in the saccules [8].
  • Light and electron microscopic immunolabeling for Golgi/TGN markers showed these saccules to be reactive for antibodies to TGN38, protein affinity-purified alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase, and anti-human beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase [8].
  • This finding was in agreement with TEM observations because, in estradiol-treated prolactin cells, the Golgi saccules were distended and Golgi elements were increased, thus indicating increased synthetic activity of these cells [9].
  • Pds expression was detected throughout the endolymphatic duct and sac, in distinct areas of the utricle and saccule, and in the external sulcus region within the cochlea [10].

Biological context of Saccule and Utricle


Anatomical context of Saccule and Utricle


Associations of Saccule and Utricle with chemical compounds

  • We found that dexamethasone (0.1 micrograms daily) given to rats from age 4 to 13 d markedly impaired saccule septation to at least age 60 d and also diminished the extent of the increase of alveolar surface area (Sa) [6].
  • Here we report immunocytochemical, histological, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic evidence that, in cultured postnatal rat utricles, a substantial number of hair cells can survive gentamicin insult even their stereocilia are lost [21].
  • In retinal rod photoreceptor cells, transducin (Gt) and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) are peripherally anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the disk saccules [22].
  • A positive response to ZIO occurs in certain Golgi vesicles and saccules, in GERL (Golgi-endoplasmic-reticulum-lysosomes), in multivesicular bodies as well as residual bodies and in small vesicles and cisternae of axonal smooth endoplasmic reticllum (ER) [23].
  • Histopathological analysis revealed abnormalities in saccules of Sod2-/- mice exposed either to room air or to 50% O2 suggestive of delayed postnatal lung development [24].

Gene context of Saccule and Utricle


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saccule and Utricle


  1. A clinical entity of cystic dilatation of the utricle associated with hemospermia. Furuya, S., Kato, H. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of prenatal maternal estrogen on the male urogenital system. Driscoll, S.G., Taylor, S.H. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Testicular function in patients with hypospadias associated with enlarged prostatic utricle. Shima, H., Yabumoto, H., Okamoto, E., Orestano, L., Ikoma, F. British journal of urology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Dolichol and dolichyl phosphate in the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses and other diseases. Wolfe, L.S., Gauthier, S., Haltia, M., Palo, J. American journal of medical genetics. Supplement. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Ultrastructural localization of prolactin in estrogen-induced prolactinoma of the rat pituitary. Experimental models for the human prolactinomas and the effects of bromocriptine. Osamura, R.Y., Watanabe, K. Acta Pathol. Jpn. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Postnatal development of alveoli. Regulation and evidence for a critical period in rats. Massaro, D., Teich, N., Maxwell, S., Massaro, G.D., Whitney, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Stereocilia defects in the sensory hair cells of the inner ear in mice deficient in integrin alpha8beta1. Littlewood Evans, A., Müller, U. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The cytoplasmic droplet of rat epididymal spermatozoa contains saccular elements with Golgi characteristics. Oko, R., Hermo, L., Chan, P.T., Fazel, A., Bergeron, J.J. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Changes of cell morphology and prolactin secretion induced by 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine, estradiol, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Antakly, T., Pelletier, G., Zeytinoglu, F., Labrie, F. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression pattern of the mouse ortholog of the Pendred's syndrome gene (Pds) suggests a key role for pendrin in the inner ear. Everett, L.A., Morsli, H., Wu, D.K., Green, E.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Voltage-gated Na+ channel activation induces both action potentials in utricular hair cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor release in the rat utricle during a restricted period of development. Chabbert, C., Mechaly, I., Sieso, V., Giraud, P., Brugeaud, A., Lehouelleur, J., Couraud, F., Valmier, J., Sans, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Regeneration in avian hair cell epithelia: identification of intracellular signals required for S-phase entry. Witte, M.C., Montcouquiol, M., Corwin, J.T. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Light and electron microscopic localization of ACTH and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in human developmental and neoplastic cells. Osamura, R.Y., Tsutsumi, Y., Watanabe, K. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Glycoprotein synthesis in the Golgi apparatus of spermatids during spermiogenesis of the rat. Clermont, Y., Tang, X.M. Anat. Rec. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Formation of concentric saccules in murine parietal cells after injection of diazo-oxo-norleucine. Michaels, J.E. Anat. Rec. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Ultrastructural demonstration of CD36 in the alpha-granule membrane of human platelets and megakaryocytes. Berger, G., Caen, J.P., Berndt, M.C., Cramer, E.M. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Otx1 and Otx2 activities are required for the normal development of the mouse inner ear. Morsli, H., Tuorto, F., Choo, D., Postiglione, M.P., Simeone, A., Wu, D.K. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Ultrastructural localization of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 in midbrain dopaminergic neurons: potential sites for somatodendritic storage and release of dopamine. Nirenberg, M.J., Chan, J., Liu, Y., Edwards, R.H., Pickel, V.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition by colchicine of biliary secretion of diethylmaleate in the rat: evidence for microtubule-dependent vesicular transport. Dumont, M., D'Hont, C., Durand-Schneider, A.M., Legrand-Defretin, V.L., Feldmann, G., Erlinger, S. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Temporal-spatial expression and transcriptional regulation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by thyroid transcription factor-1 and early growth response factor-1 during murine lung development. Reynolds, P.R., Hoidal, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunocytochemical and morphological evidence for intracellular self-repair as an important contributor to mammalian hair cell recovery. Zheng, J.L., Keller, G., Gao, W.Q. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Signal transduction in the visual cascade involves specific lipid-protein interactions. Hessel, E., Heck, M., Müller, P., Herrmann, A., Hofmann, K.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Interrelationships between Golgi, GERL and synaptic vesicles in the nerve cells of insect and gastropod ganglia. Lane, N.J., Swales, L.S. J. Cell. Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased sensitivity of homozygous Sod2 mutant mice to oxygen toxicity. Asikainen, T.M., Huang, T.T., Taskinen, E., Levonen, A.L., Carlson, E., Lapatto, R., Epstein, C.J., Raivio, K.O. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Distinctive functions of membrane type 1 matrix-metalloprotease (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) in lung and submandibular gland development are independent of its role in pro-MMP-2 activation. Oblander, S.A., Zhou, Z., Gálvez, B.G., Starcher, B., Shannon, J.M., Durbeej, M., Arroyo, A.G., Tryggvason, K., Apte, S.S. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Atoh1 null mice show directed afferent fiber growth to undifferentiated ear sensory epithelia followed by incomplete fiber retention. Fritzsch, B., Matei, V.A., Nichols, D.H., Bermingham, N., Jones, K., Beisel, K.W., Wang, V.Y. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Stage-specific regulation of respiratory epithelial cell differentiation by Foxa1. Besnard, V., Wert, S.E., Kaestner, K.H., Whitsett, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Making and breaking the innervation of the ear: neurotrophic support during ear development and its clinical implications. Fritzsch, B., Pirvola, U., Ylikoski, J. Cell Tissue Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase translocation and activation in vivo. Kay, D.G., Lai, W.H., Uchihashi, M., Khan, M.N., Posner, B.I., Bergeron, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytoskeletal protein mRNA expression in the chick utricle after treatment in vitro with aminoglycoside antibiotics: effects of insulin, iron chelators and cyclic nucleotides. Stacey, D.J., McLean, W.G. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. An RT-PCR analysis of mRNA for growth factor receptors in damaged and control sensory epithelia of rat utricles. Saffer, L.D., Gu, R., Corwin, J.T. Hear. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of prestin, a membrane motor protein, in the mammalian auditory and vestibular periphery. Adler, H.J., Belyantseva, I.A., Merritt, R.C., Frolenkov, G.I., Dougherty, G.W., Kachar, B. Hear. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Functional and anatomic alterations in the gentamicin-damaged vestibular system in the guinea pig. Oei, M.L., Segenhout, H.M., Dijk, F., Stokroos, I., van der Want, J.J., Albers, F.W. Otol. Neurotol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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