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Chemical Compound Review

Butanes     2-methylbutane

Synonyms: ISOPENTANE, Isoamylhydride, iso-Pentane, iso-C5H12, Mixed butanes, ...
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Disease relevance of Butanes

  • Here, we have used fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis in combination with an isopentane freezing method to show targeted binding of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-4C-peptide labeled with FITC, not only to endothelial cells but also to tumor cells in human breast cancer xenografts grown in nude mice [1].
  • When the brains of gerbils were taken out of the skulls and immersed in chilled isopentane (-45 degrees C), 90-95 s elapsed between decapitation until the brain tissues were frozen [2].
  • The specific rotations of 2-substituted butanes (X = F, Cl, CN, and HCC) were calculated at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level as a function of the C-C-C-C torsion angle [3].
  • The proportion of axes developing normally after being cooled in isopentane increased with increasing dehydration below 0.75 g g(-1), reaching a maximum between 0.5 and 0.25 g g(-1) after being cooled at > or =300 degrees C s(-1) [4].
  • To examine abnormal leakage of blood vessels as a model of anoxia, some cerebellar tissues were partially removed from brains in the mouse skull and quickly frozen in the isopentane-propane within a minute [5].

High impact information on Butanes


Biological context of Butanes

  • The mixtures of butanes and pentanes were selected because these four hydrocarbons are the most prevalent components of gasoline vapors encountered under typical occupational exposures [11].

Anatomical context of Butanes

  • Changes of the internal (d) and external diameter (D) of cerebral arteries in response to the various levels of arterial pCO2 were studied in anesthetized rats, of which brains were frozen in situ with isopentane cooled in liquid nitrogen [12].
  • Early chick embryos, stages 11 to 14, were isolated, quick-frozen by immersion in isopentane/propane cryogen (-185 degrees C) and freeze-substituted for study by scanning electron microscopy [13].
  • They were quickly frozen with the isopentane-propane cryogen (-193 degrees C) and prepared for freeze-fracturing and deep-etching replica membranes [14].
  • We developed two modified methods for the preparation of cryostat sections of skeletal muscle: one using solid carbon dioxide and the other using the ultra-low freezer to prepare 2-methylbutane (isopentane) for freezing of skeletal muscle [15].
  • Calves and goats were euthanatized at various times after inoculation, and portions of their right and left biceps femoris, right and left longissimus dorsi, myocardium, and tongue were frozen at -150 C in precooled isopentane and stored at -70 C [16].

Associations of Butanes with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Butanes

  • 2-Methylbutane (isopentane). CAS# 78-78-4 [19].
  • Biopsies were frozen in isopentane at liquid nitrogen temperature and cryostatic sections were studied by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), succinic-dehydrogenase (SDH) and alpha-naphthyl-esterase (ANE) enzymo-histochemical techniques [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Butanes

  • The hypothalami from the perfused rats and the pituitaries from unperfused rats were frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C) and processed for autoradiography [21].
  • At approximately 100 days following transplantation, both syngeneic and allogeneic muscles were removed from the recipient, and quickly frozen in isopentane cooled by liquid nitrogen [22].
  • The procedure involves extraction with isopentane and alkali flame ionization (nitrogen) detection [23].
  • The loaded joints were flash frozen with isopentane cooled in liquid nitrogen, then fixed using freeze substitution [24].
  • At the end of each experiment fibres were frozen in isopentane cooled in liquid nitrogen and metabolite concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzymatic analysis [25].


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  2. Improvement in local cerebral blood flow measurement in gerbil brains by prevention of postmortem diffusion of [14C]iodoantipyrine. Hatakeyama, T., Sakaki, S., Nakamura, K., Furuta, S., Matsuoka, K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Conformational effects on optical rotation. 2-Substituted butanes. Wiberg, K.B., Wang, Y.G., Vaccaro, P.H., Cheeseman, J.R., Luderer, M.R. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Interactions among water content, rapid (nonequilibrium) cooling to -196 degrees C, and survival of embryonic axes of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seeds. Wesley-Smith, J., Walters, C., Pammenter, N.W., Berjak, P. Cryobiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of anoxia on serum immunoglobulin and albumin leakage through blood-brain barrier in mouse cerebellum as revealed by cryotechniques. Zea-Aragón, Z., Terada, N., Ohno, N., Fujii, Y., Baba, T., Ohno, S. J. Neurosci. Methods (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and the regulation of central vessel caliber in the fetal rat. Bustamante, S.A., Pang, Y., Romero, S., Pierce, M.R., Voelker, C.A., Thompson, J.H., Sandoval, M., Liu, X., Miller, M.J. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure transition and swapping pattern of clathrate hydrates driven by external guest molecules. Yeon, S.H., Seol, J., Lee, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Examination of murine tear film. Tran, C.H., Routledge, C., Miller, J., Miller, F., Hodson, S.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunopathological changes in the airways of stable lung transplant recipients. Snell, G.I., Ward, C., Wilson, J.W., Orsida, B., Williams, T.J., Walters, E.H. Thorax (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus. Sar, M., Sahu, A., Crowley, W.R., Kalra, S.P. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Absence of hydrocarbon-induced nephropathy in rats exposed subchronically to volatile hydrocarbon mixtures pertinent to gasoline. Aranyi, C., O'Shea, W.J., Halder, C.A., Holdsworth, C.E., Cockrell, B.Y. Toxicology and industrial health. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Response of cortical and pial arteries to changes of arterial CO2 tension in rats--a morphometric study. Sadoshima, S., Fujishima, M., Tamaki, K., Nakatomi, Y., Ishitsuka, T., Ogata, J., Omae, T. Brain Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Retention and structure of extracellular matrix in early chick embryos after quick-freezing and freeze-substitution. Allenspach, A.L., Clark, P.J. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Replica immunoelectron microscopic study of the upper surface layer in rat mandibular condylar cartilage by a quick-freezing method. Zea-Aragon, Z., Terada, N., Ohno, N., Fujii, Y., Baba, T., Yoshida, M., Ohtsuki, K., Ohnishi, M., Ohno, S. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Modified methods for preparation of cryostat sections of skeletal muscle. Wu, J.S., Hogan, G.R., Morris, J.D. Muscle Nerve (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Types of myofibers parasitized in experimentally induced infections with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis capracanis. Powell, E.C., Pezeshkpour, G., Dubey, J.P., Fayer, R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Adipocyte development in primary rat cell cultures: a scanning electron microscopy study. Richardson, R.L., Hausman, G.J., Campion, D.R., Thomas, G.B. Anat. Rec. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of iron promoter in tungstated zirconia catalysts by Mössbauer spectroscopy at very low temperatures. Millet, J.M., Knözinger, H., Bonville, P. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. 2-Methylbutane (isopentane). CAS# 78-78-4. Galvin, J.B., Marashi, F. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Preoperative enzymo-histochemical diagnosis of dysganglionoses associated with anorectal malformations (ARM) with recto-vestibular and recto-perineal fistula. Martucciello, G., Mazzola, C., Favre, A., Negri, F., Bertagnon, M., Morando, A., Torre, M., Gambini, C., Jasonni, V. European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence for direct action of estradiol on growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) in rat hypothalamus: localization of [3H]estradiol in GRF neurons. Shirasu, K., Stumpf, W.E., Sar, M. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Histochemical properties of muscle allografts enhanced via cyclosporine. Caiozzo, V.J., Black, K.S., Hewitt, C.W., Grisham, G.R., Achauer, B.M., Prietto, C.A. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Sensitive and specific gas chromatographic and extraction method for the determination of orphenadrine in human body fluids. Labout, J.J., Thijssen, C.T., Hespe, W. J. Chromatogr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Using a freeze substitution fixation technique and histological crimp analysis for characterizing regions of strain in ligaments loaded in situ. Boorman, R.S., Norman, T., Matsen, F.A., Clark, J.M. J. Orthop. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Energetics and power output of isolated fish fast muscle fibres performing oscillatory work. Moon, T.W., Altringham, J.D., Johnston, I.A. J. Exp. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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