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Chemical Compound Review

Cepacol     1-hexadecylpyridine chloride hydrate

Synonyms: SureCN93923, ACMC-1B8PY, CHEBI:3566, AG-G-14570, Sprol (TN), ...
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Disease relevance of CETYLPYRIDINIUM


Psychiatry related information on CETYLPYRIDINIUM


High impact information on CETYLPYRIDINIUM

  • A large decrease in total cell-bound and released glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was observed in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide by measuring incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable GAGs in Chinese hamster ovary cells [7].
  • To expand these investigations further, GAGs were analyzed by cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation and DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography after labeling of parental HL-60 cultures with [35S]sulfate and D-[3H]glucosamine for 6 h, following treatment with 1 microM all-trans retinoic acid (RA) [8].
  • To resolve the cartilage proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis, it was necessary to remove the proteoglycan aggrecan by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride [9].
  • Labeled proteoglycans were isolated from the growth media by centrifugation in either associative or dissociative cesium chloride density gradients in the presence of protease inhibitors or by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride and column chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B [10].
  • The material isolated by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation was an aggregated proteoglycan (78% aggregate) that was not displaced by exogenous proteoglycan which after reduction and alkylation gave a large proteoglycan monomer (Kav = 0.23 on Sepharose CL-2B) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of CETYLPYRIDINIUM


Biological context of CETYLPYRIDINIUM


Anatomical context of CETYLPYRIDINIUM

  • Isolation and physical characterization of hyaluronic acid prepared from bovine nasal septum by cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation [21].
  • Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation [22].
  • The incorporation of 35SO4 into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable GAGs in the cell-associated and the intracellular fractions increased throughout the labeling period, while in the trypsin-soluble glycocalyx and the basal ECM incorporation approached a maximum [23].
  • Heparan [35S]sulphate (HS) chains were recovered from adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen by digestion with Pronase, precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase and DNAase and gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel [24].
  • A method of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis utilizing the discontinuous pH-stacking gel format, the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride, and an acidic buffer system has been applied to detection of specific substrates for protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM, EC in cytosol fractions of bovine cerebral cortex [25].

Associations of CETYLPYRIDINIUM with other chemical compounds



  • Although the predicted CHODL protein shares a significant homology (45% overall and 60% within the CRD) with layilin, a recently identified hyaluronan receptor, we failed to detect a specific interaction between CHODL and hyaluronan using cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation [30].
  • Proteoglycan synthesis rates were determined by measurement of 35SO4 incorporation into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable glycosaminoglycans after digestion of the scleral samples with proteinase K [31].
  • On the other hand, after incubating EGF with 0.5 M NaCl fraction, the angiogenic activity of EGF was identified with the precipitate (GAG fraction) of the cetylpyridinium chloride-treated reaction mixtures [32].
  • TGF-beta 1 and [35S]sulfate were added simultaneously to hematopoietically active human marrow cultures, and radiolabeled glycosaminoglycan production was determined by cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation [33].
  • Undamaged corneas exposed to tear solutions were examined by transmission electron microscopy after fixation of the mucin layer with cetylpyridinium chloride [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CETYLPYRIDINIUM


  1. Hyaluronic acid production and hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during lens regeneration. Kulyk, W.M., Zalik, S.E., Dimitrov, E. Exp. Cell Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Group of peptides that act synergistically with hydrophobic antibiotics against gram-negative enteric bacteria. Vaara, M., Porro, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Radiosensitization of Serratia marcescens by cetylpyridinium chloride. Evidence for membrane-associated events. Redpath, J.L., Patterson, L.K. Radiology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Dimethylmethylene blue-based spectrophotometry of glycosaminoglycans in untreated urine: a rapid screening procedure for mucopolysaccharidoses. de Jong, J.G., Wevers, R.A., Laarakkers, C., Poorthuis, B.J. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation and characterization of heparin from human mastocytoma tissue. Thunberg, L., Höök, M., Lindahl, U., Abildgaard, U., Langholm, R. Thromb. Haemost. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Practice implications with an alcohol-free, 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinse. Blenman, T.V., Morrison, K.L., Tsau, G.J., Medina, A.L., Gerlach, R.W. American journal of dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide affects colony morphology on agar and alters distribution of glycosaminoglycans and fibronectin. Dairkee, S.H., Glaser, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversible effects of retinoic acid on glycosaminoglycan synthesis during differentiation of HL-60 leukemia cells. Reiss, M., Maniglia, C.A., Sartorelli, A.C. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Proteomic analysis of articular cartilage shows increased type II collagen synthesis in osteoarthritis and expression of inhibin betaA (activin A), a regulatory molecule for chondrocytes. Hermansson, M., Sawaji, Y., Bolton, M., Alexander, S., Wallace, A., Begum, S., Wait, R., Saklatvala, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a hyaluronic acid-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan complex from dedifferentiated human chondrocyte cultures. Oegema, T.R., Thompson, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Antimicrobial resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. isolated from two European rivers. Goñi-Urriza, M., Pineau, L., Capdepuy, M., Roques, C., Caumette, P., Quentin, C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of copper and zinc ions on the germicidal properties of two popular pharmaceutical antiseptic agents cetylpyridinium chloride and povidone-iodine. Zeelie, J.J., McCarthy, T.J. The Analyst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of resistance to chlorhexidine diacetate and cetylpyridinium chloride in Pseudomonas stutzeri and changes in antibiotic susceptibility. Tattawasart, U., Maillard, J.Y., Furr, J.R., Russell, A.D. J. Hosp. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) detergent foam compared to a conventional toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis. A single blind crossover study. Addy, M., Moran, J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of acidified sodium chlorite, cetylpyridinium chloride and hot water on populations of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on beef. Ozdemir, H., Koluman, A., Yildirim, Y. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Use of cetylpyridinium chloride in the decontamination of water for culture of mycobacteria. du Moulin, G.C., Stottmeier, K.D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Chemical modifications of heparin that diminish its anticoagulant but preserve its heparanase-inhibitory, angiostatic, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties. Lapierre, F., Holme, K., Lam, L., Tressler, R.J., Storm, N., Wee, J., Stack, R.J., Castellot, J., Tyrrell, D.J. Glycobiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Hydrolysis kinetics and QSAR investigation of soft antimicrobial agents. Loftsson, T., Thorsteinsson, T., Másson, M. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Inactivation kinetics of mushroom tyrosinase by cetylpyridinium chloride. Chen, Q.X., Huang, H., Kubo, I. J. Protein Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute inhalation toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride. Lin, G.H., Voss, K.A., Davidson, T.J. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and physical characterization of hyaluronic acid prepared from bovine nasal septum by cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. Cleland, R.L., Sherblom, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation. Maccari, F., Volpi, N. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Retinal pigment epithelial glycosaminoglycan metabolism: intracellular versus extracellular pathways. In vitro studies in normal and diseased cells. Stramm, L.E., Haskins, M.E., Aguirre, G.D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Rat heparan sulphates. A study of the antithrombin-binding properties of heparan sulphate chains from rat adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen. Horner, A.A. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Endogenous substrates for protein carboxyl methyltransferase in cytosolic fractions of bovine brain. Aswad, D.W., Deight, E.A. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Synthesis and secretion of glycosaminoglycans in cultured retinal pigment epithelium. Stramm, L.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase. Prehm, P., Mausolf, A. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Measurements of reducing end groups on bovine vitreous-humour hyaluronic acid by reaction with [14C]cyanide. Swann, D.A., Silver, F.H., Sotman, S.L., Hermann, H. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Guinea pig lung tryptase. Localisation to mast cells and characterisation of the partially purified enzyme. McEuen, A.R., He, S., Brander, M.L., Walls, A.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning and characterization of human chondrolectin, a novel type I transmembrane protein homologous to C-type lectins. Weng, L., Smits, P., Wauters, J., Merregaert, J. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Decreased proteoglycan synthesis associated with form deprivation myopia in mature primate eyes. Rada, J.A., Nickla, D.L., Troilo, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Ovarian glycosaminoglycans potentiate angiogenic activity of epidermal growth factor in mice. Sato, E., Tanaka, T., Takeya, T., Miyamoto, H., Koide, S.S. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 on glycosaminoglycan production by human marrow cultures. Uhlman, D.L., Mooradian, D.L., Furcht, L.T., Luikart, S.D. Exp. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of preservative-free artificial tear solutions on corneal epithelial structure and function. Ubels, J.L., McCartney, M.D., Lantz, W.K., Beaird, J., Dayalan, A., Edelhauser, H.F. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Glycosaminoglycans of normal and malignant cultured human mammary cells. Chandrasekaran, E.V., Davidson, E.A. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Occurrence of unique polysialosyl carbohydrate units in glycoproteins of developing brain. Finne, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from bovine lung. Radhakrishnamurthy, B., Smart, F., Dalferes, E.R., Berenson, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of hyaluronidase, trypsin, and EDTA on surface composition and topography during detachment of cells in culture. Vogel, K.G. Exp. Cell Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  39. Isolation and characterization of the integral glycosaminoglycan constituents of human amyloid A and monoclonal light-chain amyloid fibrils. Nelson, S.R., Lyon, M., Gallagher, J.T., Johnson, E.A., Pepys, M.B. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
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