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Gene Review

Cx3cr1  -  chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: C-X3-C CKR-1, CX3C chemokine receptor 1, CX3CR1, Fractalkine receptor
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Disease relevance of Cx3cr1


High impact information on Cx3cr1

  • Thus, G glycoprotein interaction with CX3CR1 probably plays a key role in the biology of RSV infection [5].
  • Following peripheral lipopolysaccharide injections, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed cell-autonomous microglial neurotoxicity [3].
  • Microglia, the resident inflammatory cells of the CNS, are the only CNS cells that express the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) [3].
  • Both types of precursors displayed similar phenotypes and gave rise to CX3CR1/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive Mphi, but differed by their differentiation potential, at the clonal level [6].
  • Because interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an essential cytokine for NK cell development and maintenance, we hypothesized that it may induce CX3CR1 expression on this cell type [7].

Biological context of Cx3cr1


Anatomical context of Cx3cr1


Associations of Cx3cr1 with chemical compounds

  • Acute inflammatory responses in the CNS, induced by stereotaxic injections of lipopolysaccharide or kainic acid, results in activation of microglia and astrocytes but no detectable changes in the glial expression of CX3CL1 or CX3CR1 [13].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, which are components of oxidized LDL found in large amounts in atherosclerotic plaque, were able to specifically induce differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages with decreased expression of CCR2, confirming a previous report, and increased expression of CX3CR1 [14].

Regulatory relationships of Cx3cr1

  • Treatment with RANTES specifically modulated astrocyte receptors upregulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and downregulating CX3CR1 expression [15].

Other interactions of Cx3cr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cx3cr1


  1. Decreased atherosclerosis in CX3CR1-/- mice reveals a role for fractalkine in atherogenesis. Lesnik, P., Haskell, C.A., Charo, I.F. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemokine receptor CX3CR1 regulates renal interstitial fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Furuichi, K., Gao, J.L., Murphy, P.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor. Cardona, A.E., Pioro, E.P., Sasse, M.E., Kostenko, V., Cardona, S.M., Dijkstra, I.M., Huang, D., Kidd, G., Dombrowski, S., Dutta, R., Lee, J.C., Cook, D.N., Jung, S., Lira, S.A., Littman, D.R., Ransohoff, R.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) improves experimental autoimmune myositis in SJL/J mice. Suzuki, F., Nanki, T., Imai, T., Kikuchi, H., Hirohata, S., Kohsaka, H., Miyasaka, N. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. CX3C chemokine mimicry by respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein. Tripp, R.A., Jones, L.P., Haynes, L.M., Zheng, H., Murphy, P.M., Anderson, L.J. Nat. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Three pathways to mature macrophages in the early mouse yolk sac. Bertrand, J.Y., Jalil, A., Klaine, M., Jung, S., Cumano, A., Godin, I. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. IL-15 and IL-2 oppositely regulate expression of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Barlic, J., Sechler, J.M., Murphy, P.M. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of fractalkine receptor CX(3)CR1 function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion. Jung, S., Aliberti, J., Graemmel, P., Sunshine, M.J., Kreutzberg, G.W., Sher, A., Littman, D.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Antagonist of fractalkine (CX3CL1) delays the initiation and ameliorates the progression of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Inoue, A., Hasegawa, H., Kohno, M., Ito, M.R., Terada, M., Imai, T., Yoshie, O., Nose, M., Fujita, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The CC chemokine MCP-1 stimulates surface expression of CX3CR1 and enhances the adhesion of monocytes to fractalkine/CX3CL1 via p38 MAPK. Green, S.R., Han, K.H., Chen, Y., Almazan, F., Charo, I.F., Miller, Y.I., Quehenberger, O. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The Chemokine Receptor CX3CR1 Mediates Homing of MHC class II-Positive Cells to the Normal Mouse Corneal Epithelium. Chinnery, H.R., Ruitenberg, M.J., Plant, G.W., Pearlman, E., Jung, S., McMenamin, P.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. CX3CR1-mediated dendritic cell access to the intestinal lumen and bacterial clearance. Niess, J.H., Brand, S., Gu, X., Landsman, L., Jung, S., McCormick, B.A., Vyas, J.M., Boes, M., Ploegh, H.L., Fox, J.G., Littman, D.R., Reinecker, H.C. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, during acute and chronic inflammation in the rodent CNS. Hughes, P.M., Botham, M.S., Frentzel, S., Mir, A., Perry, V.H. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Oxidized lipid-driven chemokine receptor switch, CCR2 to CX3CR1, mediates adhesion of human macrophages to coronary artery smooth muscle cells through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent pathway. Barlic, J., Zhang, Y., Foley, J.F., Murphy, P.M. Circulation (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. RANTES stimulates inflammatory cascades and receptor modulation in murine astrocytes. Luo, Y., Berman, M.A., Zhai, Q., Fischer, F.R., Abromson-Leeman, S.R., Zhang, Y., Kuziel, W.A., Gerard, C., Dorf, M.E. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. A role for fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in cardiac allograft rejection. Robinson, L.A., Nataraj, C., Thomas, D.W., Howell, D.N., Griffiths, R., Bautch, V., Patel, D.D., Feng, L., Coffman, T.M. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. CX3CR1 deficiency confers protection from intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury. Liu, P., Patil, S., Rojas, M., Fong, A.M., Smyth, S.S., Patel, D.D. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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