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Gene Review

CX3CR1  -  chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta chemokine receptor-like 1, C-X3-C CKR-1, CCRL1, CMK-BRL-1, CMK-BRL1, ...
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Disease relevance of CX3CR1


Psychiatry related information on CX3CR1


High impact information on CX3CR1


Chemical compound and disease context of CX3CR1


Biological context of CX3CR1


Anatomical context of CX3CR1

  • Thus, fractalkine and CX3CR1 represent new types of leukocyte trafficking regulators, performing both adhesive and chemotactic functions [1].
  • These results demonstrate that FKN preferentially mediates arrest and migration of CD16+ monocytes and suggest that recruitment of this proinflammatory monocyte subset to vessel walls via the CX3CR1-FKN pathway may contribute to vascular and tissue injury during pathological conditions [14].
  • CX3CR1-mediated activation of intestinal epithelial cells was able to induce migration of human neutrophils into but not through the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer [7].
  • Cytokine and cytotoxic molecule expression by CX3CR1-positive T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry [3].
  • In contrast, percentages of CD3+/CD8+ memory lymphocytes expressing CX3CR1 were significantly less than percentages of naive CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes in RA PB, suggesting that this receptor may be down-regulated upon lymphocyte activation [15].

Associations of CX3CR1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CX3CR1


Regulatory relationships of CX3CR1

  • RESULTS: CX3CR1 expression by peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was up-regulated in RA patients [3].
  • There is a positive correlation between the number of fractalkine-expressing cells and the number of CX3CR1-positive cells in human atherosclerotic plaques (r=0.70, n=15 plaques) [25].

Other interactions of CX3CR1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CX3CR1

  • CMKBRL1 mRNA was detectable by Northern blot hybridization in neutrophils and monocytes, but not eosinophils, and was also found in eight solid organs that were tested with particularly high expression in brain [27].
  • In two retrospective studies, CX3CR1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on statistical association of a common receptor variant named CX3CR1-M280 with lower prevalence of atherosclerosis, coronary endothelial dysfunction, and acute coronary syndromes [28].
  • By RT-PCR, we found enhanced expression of Fkn and CX3CR1 mRNA on day 18 in rat AIA, a time of pronounced inflammation in the rat joint [29].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study in heart transplantation suggests that the outcomes of EAR and LAR episodes may be influenced by genetic variant interactions such as "CX3CR1 249I*CCR5 No-E" and "CCR5 E*RANTES -403A."[30]
  • In addition to genotyping, CX3CR1 mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR in 9 HCC specimens and in 6 cases in corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues [31].


  1. Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion. Imai, T., Hieshima, K., Haskell, C., Baba, M., Nagira, M., Nishimura, M., Kakizaki, M., Takagi, S., Nomiyama, H., Schall, T.J., Yoshie, O. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of CX3CR1. A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1. Combadiere, C., Salzwedel, K., Smith, E.D., Tiffany, H.L., Berger, E.A., Murphy, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Migration of CX3CR1-positive T cells producing type 1 cytokines and cytotoxic molecules into the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nanki, T., Imai, T., Nagasaka, K., Urasaki, Y., Nonomura, Y., Taniguchi, K., Hayashida, K., Hasegawa, J., Yoshie, O., Miyasaka, N. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1, in atopic dermatitis: possible contribution to skin inflammation. Echigo, T., Hasegawa, M., Shimada, Y., Takehara, K., Sato, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) in human kidney diseases. Segerer, S., Hughes, E., Hudkins, K.L., Mack, M., Goodpaster, T., Alpers, C.E. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is involved in liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis C infection. Wasmuth, H.E., Zaldivar, M.M., Berres, M.L., Werth, A., Scholten, D., Hillebrandt, S., Tacke, F., Schmitz, P., Dahl, E., Wiederholt, T., Hellerbrand, C., Berg, T., Weiskirchen, R., Trautwein, C., Lammert, F. J. Hepatol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Fractalkine-mediated signals regulate cell-survival and immune-modulatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells. Brand, S., Sakaguchi, T., Gu, X., Colgan, S.P., Reinecker, H.C. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Faure, S., Meyer, L., Costagliola, D., Vaneensberghe, C., Genin, E., Autran, B., Delfraissy, J.F., McDermott, D.H., Murphy, P.M., Debré, P., Théodorou, I., Combadière, C. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic polymorphism in CX3CR1 and risk of HIV disease. McDermott, D.H., Colla, J.S., Kleeberger, C.A., Plankey, M., Rosenberg, P.S., Smith, E.D., Zimmerman, P.A., Combadière, C., Leitman, S.F., Kaslow, R.A., Goedert, J.J., Berger, E.A., O'Brien, T.R., Murphy, P.M. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is a key mediator of atherogenesis. Cybulsky, M.I., Hegele, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of fractalkine and fractalkine receptor in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Yuridullah, R., Corrow, K.A., Malley, S.E., Vizzard, M.A. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed constitutively in diverse cells of the skin. Papadopoulos, E.J., Fitzhugh, D.J., Tkaczyk, C., Gilfillan, A.M., Sassetti, C., Metcalfe, D.D., Hwang, S.T. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The Chemokines, CX3CL1, CCL14, and CCL4, Promote Human Trophoblast Migration at the Feto-Maternal Interface. Hannan, N.J., Jones, R.L., White, C.A., Salamonsen, L.A. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Fractalkine preferentially mediates arrest and migration of CD16+ monocytes. Ancuta, P., Rao, R., Moses, A., Mehle, A., Shaw, S.K., Luscinskas, F.W., Gabuzda, D. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression in the rheumatoid joint. Ruth, J.H., Rottman, J.B., Katschke, K.J., Qin, S., Wu, L., LaRosa, G., Ponath, P., Pope, R.M., Koch, A.E. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II and fractalkine (CX3CL1) chimeras identify molecular determinants of affinity, efficacy, and selectivity at CX3CR1. Davis, C.N., Zujovic, V., Harrison, J.K. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. CX3CR1 tyrosine sulfation enhances fractalkine-induced cell adhesion. Fong, A.M., Alam, S.M., Imai, T., Haribabu, B., Patel, D.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Coexpression of fractalkine and its receptor in normal human endometrium and in endometrium from users of progestin-only contraception supports a role for fractalkine in leukocyte recruitment and endometrial remodeling. Hannan, N.J., Jones, R.L., Critchley, H.O., Kovacs, G.J., Rogers, P.A., Affandi, B., Salamonsen, L.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Resveratrol suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced fractalkine expression in endothelial cells. Moon, S.O., Kim, W., Sung, M.J., Lee, S., Kang, K.P., Kim, D.H., Lee, S.Y., So, J.N., Park, S.K. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of Cyclosporine Versus Mycophenolate Mofetil on Expression of Fractalkine and CX3CR1 in Chronic Allograft Nephropathy. Cao, G., Lu, Y., Gao, R., Xin, Y., Teng, D., Wang, J., Wang, L., Li, Y. Transplant. Proc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Two novel fully functional isoforms of CX3CR1 are potent HIV coreceptors. Garin, A., Tarantino, N., Faure, S., Daoudi, M., Lécureuil, C., Bourdais, A., Debré, P., Deterre, P., Combadiere, C. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Fractalkine induces chemotaxis and actin polymerization in human dendritic cells. Dichmann, S., Herouy, Y., Purlis, D., Rheinen, H., Gebicke-Härter, P., Norgauer, J. Inflamm. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Anti-G protein antibody responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection or vaccination are associated with inhibition of G protein CX3C-CX3CR1 binding and leukocyte chemotaxis. Harcourt, J.L., Karron, R.A., Tripp, R.A. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Pathognomonic genetic expression profile within peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rheumatic heart disease patients. Baba, M.I., Kaul, D., Grover, A. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Lucas, A.D., Bursill, C., Guzik, T.J., Sadowski, J., Channon, K.M., Greaves, D.R. Circulation (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemoattraction of T cells expressing CCR5, CXCR3 and CX3CR1 by proximal tubular epithelial cell chemokines. Cockwell, P., Calderwood, J.W., Brooks, C.J., Chakravorty, S.J., Savage, C.O. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and RNA expression of a human beta chemokine receptor-like gene. Combadiere, C., Ahuja, S.K., Murphy, P.M. DNA Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Chemokine receptor mutant CX3CR1-M280 has impaired adhesive function and correlates with protection from cardiovascular disease in humans. McDermott, D.H., Fong, A.M., Yang, Q., Sechler, J.M., Cupples, L.A., Merrell, M.N., Wilson, P.W., D'Agostino, R.B., O'Donnell, C.J., Patel, D.D., Murphy, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Fractalkine, a novel chemokine in rheumatoid arthritis and in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Ruth, J.H., Volin, M.V., Haines, G.K., Woodruff, D.C., Katschke, K.J., Woods, J.M., Park, C.C., Morel, J.C., Koch, A.E. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. CCR5, RANTES and CX3CR1 polymorphisms: possible genetic links with acute heart rejection. Simeoni, E., Vassalli, G., Seydoux, C., Ramsay, D., Noll, G., von Segesser, L.K., Fleury, S. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Lack of association between the functional CX3CR1 polymorphism V249I and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mühlbauer, M., Ringel, S., Hartmann, A., Lallinger, G., Weiss, T.S., Gäbele, E., Wünsch, P.H., Schölmerich, J., Hellerbrand, C. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
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