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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Venules


Psychiatry related information on Venules

  • Activated MMP-9 (1 microg g(-1)) significantly prolonged the latency period of inducing platelet plug formation in mesenteric venules [6].

High impact information on Venules


Chemical compound and disease context of Venules

  • RESULTS: FNIII14 inhibited the integrin alpha4beta1-mediated B lymphoma Ramos cell adhesion to VCAM-1 on venule endothelial cells, as well as to FN [12].
  • A skin biopsy specimen of urticarial and purpuric lesions demonstrated leukocytoclastic vasculitis and granular deposition of C3 and Clq in the basement membrane with IgA, IgM, C3, and Clq in postcapillary venules [13].
  • In one of these patients skin biopsies demonstrated granular deposits of IgM, C3, C4, and the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and electron-dense deposits of aggregated 20-nm particles resembling HBsAg in postcapillary venules [14].
  • Systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 3 min) induced a fall in arterial pressure and tachycardia, together with constriction in some arterioles and venules of each section of the vascular tree and dilatation in others [15].
  • In this study the effects of SNP and SIN-1 on thrombus formation in rat cerebral arterioles and venules in vivo were assessed using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser [16].

Biological context of Venules


Anatomical context of Venules


Associations of Venules with chemical compounds


Gene context of Venules

  • Only the lymphatic endothelia and some high endothelial venules expressed FLT4 mRNA in adult human tissues [32].
  • Disparate lymphoid chemokine expression in mice and men: no evidence of CCL21 synthesis by human high endothelial venules [33].
  • T-cell homing to secondary lymphoid tissues generally depends on chemokine-induced firm adhesion in high endothelial venules (HEVs) and is primarily mediated through the CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) on lymphocytes [33].
  • CLA initiates skin homing by mediating E-selectin-dependent tethering and rolling within cutaneous venules, but the specific roles of CCR4 and CCR10 are unclear [34].
  • Similar responses were seen in the central venules, however, in the sinusoids the increased number of stationary leukocytes seen in response to 4 hours of TNF-alpha stimulation in the wild-type mice was not reduced in P-selectin-deficient mice with or without the alpha(4)-integrin antibody [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Venules


  1. Role of ChemR23 in directing the migration of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells to lymphoid organs and inflamed skin. Vermi, W., Riboldi, E., Wittamer, V., Gentili, F., Luini, W., Marrelli, S., Vecchi, A., Franssen, J.D., Communi, D., Massardi, L., Sironi, M., Mantovani, A., Parmentier, M., Facchetti, F., Sozzani, S. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Receptor binding sites for substance P, but not substance K or neuromedin K, are expressed in high concentrations by arterioles, venules, and lymph nodules in surgical specimens obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Mantyh, C.R., Gates, T.S., Zimmerman, R.P., Welton, M.L., Passaro, E.P., Vigna, S.R., Maggio, J.E., Kruger, L., Mantyh, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. CD8+ T cells from patients with acute multiple sclerosis display selective increase of adhesiveness in brain venules: a critical role for P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. Battistini, L., Piccio, L., Rossi, B., Bach, S., Galgani, S., Gasperini, C., Ottoboni, L., Ciabini, D., Caramia, M.D., Bernardi, G., Laudanna, C., Scarpini, E., McEver, R.P., Butcher, E.C., Borsellino, G., Constantin, G. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Response of intra-acinar pulmonary microvessels to hypoxia, hypercapnic acidosis, and isocapnic acidosis. Yamaguchi, K., Suzuki, K., Naoki, K., Nishio, K., Sato, N., Takeshita, K., Kudo, H., Aoki, T., Suzuki, Y., Miyata, A., Tsumura, H. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatic fibrosis produced in guinea pigs by chronic ethanol administration and immunization with acetaldehyde adducts. Yokoyama, H., Nagata, S., Moriya, S., Kato, S., Ito, T., Kamegaya, K., Ishii, H. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human platelets: regulation of platelet activation in in vitro and in vivo studies. Sheu, J.R., Fong, T.H., Liu, C.M., Shen, M.Y., Chen, T.L., Chang, Y., Lu, M.S., Hsiao, G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Novel sulfated lymphocyte homing receptors and their control by a Core1 extension beta 1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Yeh, J.C., Hiraoka, N., Petryniak, B., Nakayama, J., Ellies, L.G., Rabuka, D., Hindsgaul, O., Marth, J.D., Lowe, J.B., Fukuda, M. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Leukocytes roll on a selectin at physiologic flow rates: distinction from and prerequisite for adhesion through integrins. Lawrence, M.B., Springer, T.A. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of leukocyte migration by activation of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) selectin. Spertini, O., Kansas, G.S., Munro, J.M., Griffin, J.D., Tedder, T.F. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell surface molecule associated with lymphocyte homing is a ubiquitinated branched-chain glycoprotein. Siegelman, M., Bond, M.W., Gallatin, W.M., St John, T., Smith, H.T., Fried, V.A., Weissman, I.L. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Role for CCR7 ligands in the emigration of newly generated T lymphocytes from the neonatal thymus. Ueno, T., Hara, K., Willis, M.S., Malin, M.A., Höpken, U.E., Gray, D.H., Matsushima, K., Lipp, M., Springer, T.A., Boyd, R.L., Yoshie, O., Takahama, Y. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A new type of antimetastatic peptide derived from fibronectin. Kato, R., Ishikawa, T., Kamiya, S., Oguma, F., Ueki, M., Goto, S., Nakamura, H., Katayama, T., Fukai, F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The hypocomplementemic urticarial-vasculitis syndrome: therapeutic response to hydroxychloroquine. Lopez, L.R., Davis, K.C., Kohler, P.F., Schocket, A.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Small vessel vasculitis caused by hepatitis B virus immune complexes. Small vessel vasculitis and HBsAG. Gower, R.G., Sausker, W.F., Kohler, P.F., Thorne, G.E., McIntosh, R.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. The influence of vasopressin on the arterioles and venules of skeletal muscle of the rat during systemic hypoxia. Marshall, J.M., Lloyd, J., Mian, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of NO-donors on thrombus formation and microcirculation in cerebral vessels of the rat. Sasaki, Y., Seki, J., Giddings, J.C., Yamamoto, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Upregulation and coexpression of adhesion molecules correlate with relapsing autoimmune demyelination in the central nervous system. Cannella, B., Cross, A.H., Raine, C.S. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules. Asako, H., Kurose, I., Wolf, R., DeFrees, S., Zheng, Z.L., Phillips, M.L., Paulson, J.C., Granger, D.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Histamine receptors of the microvascular endothelium revealed in situ with a histamine-ferritin conjugate: characteristic high-affinity binding sites in venules. Heltianu, C., Simionescu, M., Simionescu, N. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Hydrogen peroxide regulation of endothelial exocytosis by inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor. Matsushita, K., Morrell, C.N., Mason, R.J., Yamakuchi, M., Khanday, F.A., Irani, K., Lowenstein, C.J. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Endogenous interleukin-10 regulates hemodynamic parameters, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and microvascular permeability during endotoxemia. Hickey, M.J., Issekutz, A.C., Reinhardt, P.H., Fedorak, R.N., Kubes, P. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase Fuc-TVII controls leukocyte trafficking through an essential role in L-, E-, and P-selectin ligand biosynthesis. Malý, P., Thall, A., Petryniak, B., Rogers, C.E., Smith, P.L., Marks, R.M., Kelly, R.J., Gersten, K.M., Cheng, G., Saunders, T.L., Camper, S.A., Camphausen, R.T., Sullivan, F.X., Isogai, Y., Hindsgaul, O., von Andrian, U.H., Lowe, J.B. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. The mouse lymph node homing receptor is identical with the lymphocyte cell surface marker Ly-22: role of the EGF domain in endothelial binding. Siegelman, M.H., Cheng, I.C., Weissman, I.L., Wakeland, E.K. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. BLC expression in pancreatic islets causes B cell recruitment and lymphotoxin-dependent lymphoid neogenesis. Luther, S.A., Lopez, T., Bai, W., Hanahan, D., Cyster, J.G. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. CD44 and its ligand hyaluronate mediate rolling under physiologic flow: a novel lymphocyte-endothelial cell primary adhesion pathway. DeGrendele, H.C., Estess, P., Picker, L.J., Siegelman, M.H. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. The CCR7 ligand elc (CCL19) is transcytosed in high endothelial venules and mediates T cell recruitment. Baekkevold, E.S., Yamanaka, T., Palframan, R.T., Carlsen, H.S., Reinholt, F.P., von Andrian, U.H., Brandtzaeg, P., Haraldsen, G. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Leukotriene B4 and BLT1 control cytotoxic effector T cell recruitment to inflamed tissues. Goodarzi, K., Goodarzi, M., Tager, A.M., Luster, A.D., von Andrian, U.H. Nat. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases 1 and 2 cooperatively control lymphocyte homing through L-selectin ligand biosynthesis in high endothelial venules. Kawashima, H., Petryniak, B., Hiraoka, N., Mitoma, J., Huckaby, V., Nakayama, J., Uchimura, K., Kadomatsu, K., Muramatsu, T., Lowe, J.B., Fukuda, M. Nat. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and the regulation of venule permeability to macromolecules by vascular permeability factor, histamine, and serotonin. Feng, D., Nagy, J.A., Hipp, J., Dvorak, H.F., Dvorak, A.M. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Monoclonal antibody to murine PECAM-1 (CD31) blocks acute inflammation in vivo. Bogen, S., Pak, J., Garifallou, M., Deng, X., Muller, W.A. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 mediates L-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling in venules. Sperandio, M., Smith, M.L., Forlow, S.B., Olson, T.S., Xia, L., McEver, R.P., Ley, K. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 4 gene becomes restricted to lymphatic endothelium during development. Kaipainen, A., Korhonen, J., Mustonen, T., van Hinsbergh, V.W., Fang, G.H., Dumont, D., Breitman, M., Alitalo, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Disparate lymphoid chemokine expression in mice and men: no evidence of CCL21 synthesis by human high endothelial venules. Carlsen, H.S., Haraldsen, G., Brandtzaeg, P., Baekkevold, E.S. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte trafficking. Soler, D., Humphreys, T.L., Spinola, S.M., Campbell, J.J. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular mechanisms of tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated leukocyte recruitment into the murine hepatic circulation. Fox-Robichaud, A., Kubes, P. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Sequential contribution of L- and P-selectin to leukocyte rolling in vivo. Ley, K., Bullard, D.C., Arbonés, M.L., Bosse, R., Vestweber, D., Tedder, T.F., Beaudet, A.L. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 reduces bile acid-mediated intestinal vascular injury in rats. Erickson, R.A., Chang, K., Lifrak, E., Rivera, N., Stachura, J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion. Kubes, P., Suzuki, M., Granger, D.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of SUT-1, a sulfate transporter from human high endothelial venules. Girard, J.P., Baekkevold, E.S., Feliu, J., Brandtzaeg, P., Amalric, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Microvascular effects of atrial natriuretic factor: interaction with alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Faber, J.E., Gettes, D.R., Gianturco, D.P. Circ. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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