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Gene Review

Myl2  -  myosin, light polypeptide 2, regulatory,...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: MLC-2, MLC-2v, Mlc2v, Mylpc, Myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform
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Disease relevance of Myl2


High impact information on Myl2

  • In another transgenic strain, carrying the rat MLC2 gene and a modified rat skeletal muscle actin gene (actin-globin chimeric gene), transcripts of the rat MLC2 gene were detected in skeletal muscle only, whereas the actin-globin transcripts were detected in skeletal muscle as well as in the heart [6].
  • Crt(-/-) EBs exhibited a severe decrease in expression and a lack of phosphorylation of ventricular myosin light chain 2 (MLC2v), resulting in an impaired organization of myofibrils [7].
  • An imposed ionomycin-triggered cystolic-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) elevation restored the expression, phosphorylation, and insertion of MLC2v into sarcomeric structures and in turn the myofibrillogenesis [7].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Postnatal transgenic cardiac-specific overexpression of MLC2v was achieved by use of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter [8].
  • Accordingly, we designed the present experiment to define the cardiac chamber-specific functional effects of the ventricular isoform of the regulatory myosin light chain (MLC2v) [8].

Biological context of Myl2

  • Analysis of this panel has located the CR hairless rat's hypotrichosis-generating mutation on chromosome 1, near Myl2, where only the fuzzy mutation in rat (fz) and the frizzy mutation in mouse (fr) have been previously localized [9].
  • Taken together, this provides evidence for early positional specification of MLC-2v gene expression in the primitive heart tube and indicates regional specification of part of the ventricular muscle gene program can precede ventricular septation during mammalian cardiogenesis [10].
  • Transgenic mice harboring a 250-base-pair MLC-2v promoter fragment fused to a luciferase reporter gene demonstrate reporter gene activity from at least day 9 pc [10].
  • To study the process of ventricular specification during cardiogenesis, we examined the in situ expression of cardiac ventricular myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2v) mRNA during murine embryogenesis [10].
  • However, if the transgene encodes the isoform that is normally present (e.g., MLC2v expressed in the ventricle), the protein levels remain unaffected, although the transgenic transcript accumulates to very high levels [11].

Anatomical context of Myl2


Associations of Myl2 with chemical compounds

  • This study provides direct evidence that USF, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, binds to MLE1, HF-1a, and PRE B sites and suggests that it is a component of protein complexes that may coordinately control the expression of MLC-2v and alpha-myosin heavy-chain genes [15].
  • Statins concentration- and time-dependently downregulated basal as well as angiotensin-induced expression of ANF by 86+/-2.3% and 89+/-1.7%, as well as MLC-2 by 75+/-4.1% and 84+/-6%, respectively [16].
  • We have established a CGR8 embryonic stem (ES) cell clone (MLC2ECFP) which expresses the enhanced cyan variant of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (ECFP) under the transcriptional control of the ventricular myosin light chain 2 (MLC2v) promoter [17].
  • Nonetheless, the CVB3 mutant was found to induce a cytopathic effect in transfected myocytes, which was demonstrated by inhibition of cotransfected MLC-2v luciferase reporter activity and an increase in release of lactate dehydrogenase from transfected cells [18].
  • These cells expressed cardiomyocyte-specific genes such as alpha-skeletal actin, beta-myosin heavy chain, MLC-2v, and CaV1.2 and incorporated bromodeoxyuridine for 5 days [19].

Regulatory relationships of Myl2


Other interactions of Myl2

  • As assessed by hybridization with a specific MLC-2v riboprobe, mRNA expression can be found in the ventricular region at day 8.0 postcoitum (pc) [10].
  • With development, myocardial cells are observed in the lower endocardial ridges that share MLC2a and MLC2v expression with the myocardial cells of the outflow tract [20].
  • We have recently reported that cardiac lineage protein-1 (CLP-1), a nuclear protein with an acidic region that constitutes a potential protein-protein interaction domain, regulates transcription of the cardiac myosin light chain-2v (MLC-2v) gene promoter in a manner consistent with its being a transcriptional co-activator or regulator [21].
  • However, its function in striated muscle remains obscure, and the different functional activities of the various isoforms that are expressed in the mammalian heart (ventricle- and atrium-specific MLC2) remain undefined [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myl2

  • Using epifluorescence imaging of vital embryoid bodies (EB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we found that the MLC2v promoter is switched on as early as day 7 and is accompanied by formation of cell clusters featuring a bright ECFP blue fluorescence [17].
  • Based on in situ hybridization studies that indicated the expression of the cardiac myosin-light-chain-2 (MLC-2) gene in ventricular myocardium and in the lower outflow tract, a model system for selective targeting of foreign genes to the heart of transgenic mice has been developed [22].


  1. Ventricular expression of a MLC-2v-ras fusion gene induces cardiac hypertrophy and selective diastolic dysfunction in transgenic mice. Hunter, J.J., Tanaka, N., Rockman, H.A., Ross, J., Chien, K.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Heart-specific targeting of firefly luciferase by the myosin light chain-2 promoter and developmental regulation in transgenic mice. Franz, W.M., Breves, D., Klingel, K., Brem, G., Hofschneider, P.H., Kandolf, R. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Regional septal dysfunction in a three-dimensional computational model of focal myofiber disarray. Usyk, T.P., Omens, J.H., McCulloch, A.D. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. A conserved 28-base-pair element (HF-1) in the rat cardiac myosin light-chain-2 gene confers cardiac-specific and alpha-adrenergic-inducible expression in cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells. Zhu, H., Garcia, A.V., Ross, R.S., Evans, S.M., Chien, K.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. A hypoxia-inducible vigilant vector system for activating therapeutic genes in ischemia. Tang, Y.L., Tang, Y., Zhang, Y.C., Agarwal, A., Kasahara, H., Qian, K., Shen, L., Phillips, M.I. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression in transgenic mice of two genes of different tissue specificity integrated into a single chromosomal site. Einat, P., Bergman, Y., Yaffe, D., Shani, M. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Calreticulin reveals a critical Ca(2+) checkpoint in cardiac myofibrillogenesis. Li, J., Pucéat, M., Perez-Terzic, C., Mery, A., Nakamura, K., Michalak, M., Krause, K.H., Jaconi, M.E. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of total replacement of atrial myosin light chain-2 with the ventricular isoform in atrial myocytes of transgenic mice. Pawloski-Dahm, C.M., Song, G., Kirkpatrick, D.L., Palermo, J., Gulick, J., Dorn, G.W., Robbins, J., Walsh, R.A. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The Charles River "hairless" rat mutation maps to chromosome 1: allelic with fuzzy and a likely orthologue of mouse frizzy. Ahearn, K., Akkouris, G., Berry, P.R., Chrissluis, R.R., Crooks, I.M., Dull, A.K., Grable, S., Jeruzal, J., Lanza, J., Lavoie, C., Maloney, R.A., Pitruzzello, M., Sharma, R., Stoklasek, T.A., Tweeddale, J., King, T.R. J. Hered. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Positional specification of ventricular myosin light chain 2 expression in the primitive murine heart tube. O'Brien, T.X., Lee, K.J., Chien, K.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Remodeling the mammalian heart using transgenesis. Palermo, J., Gulick, J., Ng, W., Grupp, I.L., Grupp, G., Robbins, J. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Positive regulatory elements (HF-1a and HF-1b) and a novel negative regulatory element (HF-3) mediate ventricular muscle-specific expression of myosin light-chain 2-luciferase fusion genes in transgenic mice. Lee, K.J., Hickey, R., Zhu, H., Chien, K.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Intracellular calcium plays an essential role in cardiac development. Porter, G.A., Makuck, R.F., Rivkees, S.A. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Transgenic remodeling of the regulatory myosin light chains in the mammalian heart. Gulick, J., Hewett, T.E., Klevitsky, R., Buck, S.H., Moss, R.L., Robbins, J. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The basic helix-loop-helix protein upstream stimulating factor regulates the cardiac ventricular myosin light-chain 2 gene via independent cis regulatory elements. Navankasattusas, S., Sawadogo, M., van Bilsen, M., Dang, C.V., Chien, K.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Impact of HMG CoA reductase inhibition on small GTPases in the heart. Laufs, U., Kilter, H., Konkol, C., Wassmann, S., Böhm, M., Nickenig, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. A fluorescent reporter gene as a marker for ventricular specification in ES-derived cardiac cells. Meyer, N., Jaconi, M., Landopoulou, A., Fort, P., Pucéat, M. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Low-level expression of a mutant coxsackieviral cDNA induces a myocytopathic effect in culture: an approach to the study of enteroviral persistence in cardiac myocytes. Wessely, R., Henke, A., Zell, R., Kandolf, R., Knowlton, K.U. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Purified cardiomyocytes from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells produce stable intracardiac grafts in mice. Hattan, N., Kawaguchi, H., Ando, K., Kuwabara, E., Fujita, J., Murata, M., Suematsu, M., Mori, H., Fukuda, K. Cardiovasc. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Myosin light chain 2a and 2v identifies the embryonic outflow tract myocardium in the developing rodent heart. Franco, D., Markman, M.M., Wagenaar, G.T., Ya, J., Lamers, W.H., Moorman, A.F. Anat. Rec. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Ablation of the CLP-1 gene leads to down-regulation of the HAND1 gene and abnormality of the left ventricle of the heart and fetal death. Huang, F., Wagner, M., Siddiqui, M.A. Mech. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of a cardiac-selective and developmentally upregulated promoter in transgenic mice. Franz, W.M., Brem, G., Katus, H.A., Klingel, K., Hofschneider, P.H., Kandolf, R. Cardioscience. (1994) [Pubmed]
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