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Gene Review

ENDOG  -  endonuclease G

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Endo G, Endonuclease G, mitochondrial
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Disease relevance of ENDOG


Psychiatry related information on ENDOG

  • Psychomotor disturbance was assessed by the CORE measure and by seven classical endogeneity symptoms of melancholia which, when summed, created a ENDOG score [6].

High impact information on ENDOG


Biological context of ENDOG


Anatomical context of ENDOG


Associations of ENDOG with chemical compounds

  • In the present study, we show that, on cadmium exposure, the human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells undergo caspase-independent apoptosis associated with nuclear translocation of endonuclease G and apoptosis-inducing factor, two mitochondrial apoptogenic proteins [19].
  • Pretreatment with 20mM N-acetylcysteine prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, the nuclear translocation of endonuclease G and AIF, and the nuclear DNA fragmentation [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results demonstrate that palmitate stimulates apoptosis by evoking an intrinsic pathway of proapoptotic signaling and identify mitochondrial release of endonuclease G as a key step in proapoptotic signaling by saturated FFA and in the anti-apoptotic actions of unsaturated FFA [21].
  • The name Endonuclease G had originally been assigned to an endonuclease activity identified in nuclear extracts of chicken erythrocytes that was found to specifically nick within guanine (G) tracts in DNA in vitro [22].

Regulatory relationships of ENDOG


Other interactions of ENDOG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENDOG

  • The translocation of AIF and endonuclease G correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction as indicated by the progressive loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (measured with the JC-1 assay) and the appearance of nuclear DNA fragments in the cytosol (determined by an anti-histone ELISA) [20].
  • Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and neuron survival, as well as an alternative apoptotic pathway involving endonuclease G (endo G), were assessed at 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, and/or 72 h using enzyme assays and immunoblotting [28].


  1. Novel inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor VX-944 induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells primarily via caspase-independent AIF/Endo G pathway. Ishitsuka, K., Hideshima, T., Hamasaki, M., Raje, N., Kumar, S., Podar, K., Le Gouill, S., Shiraishi, N., Yasui, H., Roccaro, A.M., Tai, Y.Z., Chauhan, D., Fram, R., Tamura, K., Jain, J., Anderson, K.C. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of endonuclease G-mediated apopotosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by protein kinase C inhibitor safingol. Hamada, M., Sumi, T., Iwai, S., Nakazawa, M., Yura, Y. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Caspase-independent death of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cybrids is driven by energetic failure and mediated by AIF and Endonuclease G. Zanna, C., Ghelli, A., Porcelli, A.M., Martinuzzi, A., Carelli, V., Rugolo, M. Apoptosis (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Endonuclease G: a role for the enzyme in recombination and cellular proliferation. Huang, K.J., Ku, C.C., Lehman, I.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Endonuclease G, a candidate human enzyme for the initiation of genomic inversion in herpes simplex type 1 virus. Huang, K.J., Zemelman, B.V., Lehman, I.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The differential impact of age on the phenomenology of melancholia. Parker, G., Roy, K., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Wilhelm, K., Mitchell, P. Psychological medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Li, L.Y., Luo, X., Wang, X. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Life's smile, death's grin: vital functions of apoptosis-executing proteins. Garrido, C., Kroemer, G. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. CRN-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans FEN-1 homologue, cooperates with CPS-6/EndoG to promote apoptotic DNA degradation. Parrish, J.Z., Yang, C., Shen, B., Xue, D. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and expression of the mouse endonuclease G gene. Prats, E., Noël, M., Létourneau, J., Tiranti, V., Vaqué, J., Debón, R., Zeviani, M., Cornudella, L., Ruiz-Carrillo, A. DNA Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel mechanism for imatinib mesylate-induced cell death of BCR-ABL-positive human leukemic cells: caspase-independent, necrosis-like programmed cell death mediated by serine protease activity. Okada, M., Adachi, S., Imai, T., Watanabe, K., Toyokuni, S.Y., Ueno, M., Zervos, A.S., Kroemer, G., Nakahata, T. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Toxic proteins released from mitochondria in cell death. Saelens, X., Festjens, N., Vande Walle, L., van Gurp, M., van Loo, G., Vandenabeele, P. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Intracellular signaling mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver cell death. Jaeschke, H., Bajt, M.L. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Up-regulation of Bax and endonuclease G, and down-modulation of Bcl-XL involved in cardiotoxin III-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. Yang, S.H., Chien, C.M., Lu, M.C., Lin, Y.H., Hu, X.W., Lin, S.R. Exp. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of K(+) efflux prevents mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses caspase-3-, apoptosis-inducing factor-, and endonuclease G-mediated constitutive apoptosis in human neutrophils. El Kebir, D., J??zsef, L., Khreiss, T., Filep, J.G. Cell. Signal. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Galectin-1 induces nuclear translocation of endonuclease G in caspase- and cytochrome c-independent T cell death. Hahn, H.P., Pang, M., He, J., Hernandez, J.D., Yang, R.Y., Li, L.Y., Wang, X., Liu, F.T., Baum, L.G. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular mechanisms of light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis and neuroprotection for retinal degeneration. Wenzel, A., Grimm, C., Samardzija, M., Remé, C.E. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Tetracycline analogues (doxycycline and COL-3) induce caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Onoda, T., Ono, T., Dhar, D.K., Yamanoi, A., Nagasue, N. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Cadmium induces caspase-independent apoptosis in liver Hep3B cells: role for calcium in signaling oxidative stress-related impairment of mitochondria and relocation of endonuclease G and apoptosis-inducing factor. Lemarié, A., Lagadic-Gossmann, D., Morzadec, C., Allain, N., Fardel, O., Vernhet, L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Nuclear Translocation of Endonuclease G and Apoptosis-Inducing Factor during Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Cell Injury. Bajt, M.L., Cover, C., Lemasters, J.J., Jaeschke, H. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Saturated free fatty acids and apoptosis in microvascular mesangial cells: palmitate activates pro-apoptotic signaling involving caspase 9 and mitochondrial release of endonuclease G. Mishra, R., Simonson, M.S. Cardiovascular diabetology [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Mitochondrial Endonuclease G function in apoptosis and mtDNA metabolism: a historical perspective. Low, R.L. Mitochondrion (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Discovery, regulation, and action of the major apoptotic nucleases DFF40/CAD and endonuclease G. Widlak, P., Garrard, W.T. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of canine mitochondrial protein expression in natural and induced forms of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Lopes, R., Solter, P.F., Sisson, D.D., Oyama, M.A., Prosek, R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of a 1200-kb genomic segment of chromosome 3p22-p21.3. Daigo, Y., Isomura, M., Nishiwaki, T., Tamari, M., Ishikawa, S., Kai, M., Murata, Y., Takeuchi, K., Yamane, Y., Hayashi, R., Minami, M., Fujino, M.A., Hojo, Y., Uchiyama, I., Takagi, T., Nakamura, Y. DNA Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Action of recombinant human apoptotic endonuclease G on naked DNA and chromatin substrates: cooperation with exonuclease and DNase I. Widlak, P., Li, L.Y., Wang, X., Garrard, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. AMPA-induced excitotoxicity increases nuclear levels of CAD, endonuclease G, and acinus and induces chromatin condensation in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Henne, W.M., Oomman, S., Attridge, J., Finckbone, V., Coates, P., Bliss, R., Strahlendorf, H., Strahlendorf, J. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Apoptotic death of striatal neurons induced by human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat and gp120: Differential involvement of caspase-3 and endonuclease G. Singh, I.N., Goody, R.J., Dean, C., Ahmad, N.M., Lutz, S.E., Knapp, P.E., Nath, A., Hauser, K.F. J. Neurovirol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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