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Gene Review

EXOG  -  endo/exonuclease (5'-3'), endonuclease G-like

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ENDOGL1, ENDOGL2, ENGL, ENGL-a, ENGL-b, ...
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Disease relevance of ENDOGL1

  • Retraction. Darsee JR, Heymsfield SB. Decreased myocardial taurine levels and hypertaurinuria in a kindred with mitral-valve prolapse and congestive cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 1981;304:129-35 [1].
  • Oral administration of isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) was shown previously (Kraemer, K. H., J. J. DiGiovanna, A. N. Moshell, R. E. Tarone, and G. L. Peck. 1988. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:1633-1637) to reduce the frequency of skin cancers in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients [2].
  • In a recent report, [Zhang et al. (2003) N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 203-213], the presence of CD3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found to correlate with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer [3].
  • Although years of follow-up will be needed, our results confirm Piro et al's observation (N Engl J Med 322: 1117, 1990) that 2CdA appears to be highly effective in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia [4].
  • Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated CD44-6v as a new independent prognostic parameter in high grade NHL in comparison with the risk groups defined by the International NHL Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project (N Engl J Med 329:987, 1993) [5].

Psychiatry related information on ENDOGL1

  • In order to specify the topography of the assumed cerebellar speech perception mechanism, a functional magnetic resonance imaging study was performed using the German lexical items "Boden" ([bodn], Engl. "floor") and "Boten" ([botn], "messengers") as test materials [6].
  • Together with reduced reaction times (RTs), an ERP deflection named P350 has been found to be reduced for targets, which match the primes (e.g., in the prime-target pair re-REGAL) as compared to unrelated targets (e.g., re-WIRBEL [Engl. burble]) [7].
  • RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: A recent prospective study (S Seshadri and colleagues N Engl J Med; 2002 346: 476-83) showed hyperhomocysteinaemia to be a strong, independent risk factor for dementia and AD [8].

High impact information on ENDOGL1

  • Although significant clinical benefit was documented (N Engl J Med 1987; 317:185-91), serious adverse reactions, particularly bone marrow suppression, were observed [9].
  • Retraction. Darsee JR, Heymsfield SB, Nutter DO. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and human leukocyte antigen linkage: differentiation of two forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 1979;300:877-82, [10].
  • Statins have never been shown to be involved in the immune response, although reports have suggested a better outcome of cardiac transplantation in patients under pravastatin therapy [New Engl J Med 1995;333:621; Circulation 1997;96:1398] [11].
  • The underlying molecular defect in ovalocytes remained a mystery until Liu and colleagues (N. Engl. J. Med. 1990. 323:1530-38) made the surprising observation that the ovalocytic phenotype was linked to a structural polymorphism in band 3, the anion transporter [12].
  • Nonoxidative glucose metabolism which under these conditions is a measure of muscle glycogen synthesis (1990. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:223-228), was 31 +/- 7 mumol/(kg body wt-min) in the normal subjects and 13 +/- 3 mumol/(kg body wt-min) in the NIDDM subjects (P less than 0.05) [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of ENDOGL1

  • The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study recently found and reported (SPAF Investigators, N Engl J Med, 1990;322:863-868) a beneficial effect of both warfarin and aspirin compared with placebo in the primary prevention of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation [14].
  • Lebrec D, Poynard T, Hillon P, Benhamou J-P. Propranolol for prevention of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. A controlled study [N Engl J Med 1981;305:1371-1374] [15].
  • ( number, NCT00035789.). [Abstract reproduced by permission of N Engl J Med 2006;354:1011-1020] A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B [16].
  • Although there is one case report of cholesterol crystal embolization following t-PA therapy with only extrarenal manifestations (N Engl J Med 321:1270, 1989), this is the first reported case of atheroembolic acute renal failure following t-PA therapy [17].
  • Mannose-terminal glucocerebrosidase prepared by exoglycosidase digestion of human placental glucocerebrosidase is reported effective in the treatment of patients with type 1 Gaucher's disease [Barton et al. (1991); N Engl J Med 324:1464-1470] [18].

Biological context of ENDOGL1

  • One (designated ENGL) of the novel sequences was found to encode an amino-acid sequence homologous to the family of DNA/RNA endonucleases, especially endonuclease G. The other gene F56 revealed no significant homology to any known genes [19].
  • The large size of this gene (ca. 200 kilobases [kb]) and its multiple dispersed exons (Wiggs et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 318:151-157, 1988) complicate molecular screening strategies important in prenatal and presymptomatic diagnosis and in carrier detection [20].
  • The Rh D genotypes, as determined with a method based on the allele-specific amplification of the 3' noncoding region of the Rh D gene described by Bennett et al (N Engl J Med 329:607, 1993), were not concordant with the serologically established phenotypes in all cases [21].
  • Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis and somatic cell hybridization techniques were used to examine the malignant cell population in an unusual patient with hairy cell leukemia and macroglobulinemia (N Engl J Med 296:92, 1977) [22].
  • In human subjects, overexpression of annexin 2 in acute promyelocytic leukemia leads to a bleeding diathesis reflective of excessive cell surface annexin 2-dependent generation of plasmin (Menell, J. S., Cesarman, G. M., Jacovina, A. T., McLaughlin, M. A., Lev, E. A., and Hajjar, K. A. (1999) N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 994-1004) [23].

Anatomical context of ENDOGL1

  • A male infant with a severe neutrophil motility disorder and poorly polymerizable actin in PMN extracts was reported over a decade ago to have neutrophil actin dysfunction (NAD) (1974. N. Engl. J. Med. 291:1093-1099) [24].
  • Recently, approximately 60% of human ependymomas, choroid plexus tumors and mesotheliomas were reported to contain and express SV40-like sequences (N. Engl. J. Med., 1992, 36, 988-993; Oncogene, 1994, 9, 1781-1790) [25].
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can establish a persistent and latent infection in CD4+ T lymphocytes (W. C. Greene, N. Engl. J. Med. 324:308-317, 1991; S. M. Schnittman, M. C. Psallidopoulos, H. C. Lane, L. Thompson, M. Baseler, F. Massari, C. H. Fox, N. P. Salzman, and A. S. Fauci, Science 245:305-308, 1989) [26].
  • Cl.4-2 was used for in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes prepared from an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell line, derived from a t(3;8) (p14.2;q24.1) carrying member of the RCC family described by Cohen et al. in 1979 (N Engl J Med: 301:592-595) [27].
  • Ultrastructurally, both dynein arms were normal, but numerous defective central pairs (more than 50% and 70%, respectively) were seen, and the defect in the second case was similar to the transposition of microtubules reported by Sturgess et al (N Engl J Med 303:318-322, 1980) [28].

Associations of ENDOGL1 with chemical compounds

  • CR3 glycoprotein expression was measured in PMNs from the mother, father, and older sister of the NAD patient (N Engl J Med 291:1093, 1974) [29].
  • The children had been treated with quinine, sulfadox-ine-pyrimethamine, and intravenous infusions of either placebo (n = 39) or the iron chelator, desferrioxamine B (n = 42), in a previously reported trial (Gordeuk et al, N Engl J Med 327:1473, 1992) [30].
  • The Ca(2+) specificity of 8-17 is strongly reminiscent of the properties of Mg5, an RNA phosphodiester-cleaving deoxyribozyme previously isolated by Faulhammer and Famulok (Faulhammer, D., and Famulok, M. (1996) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 35, 2837-2841) [31].
  • Structural information for an analogous diester bridged strapped system reported previously (Yoon, D. W.; Hwang, H.; Lee, C. H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 1757-1759) is also provided as are bromide and chloride anion affinities for all four systems determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in acetonitrile [32].
  • Previous studies by the authors demonstrated that the response of urinary aquaporin-2 (AQP2) excretion to dDAVP (deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) infusion is an index of vasopressin action on the kidney (N Engl J Med 332: 1540-1545, 1995) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENDOGL1

  • The first multicentre trial with stents coated with sirolimus was by Marie-Claude Morice and colleagues (N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1773-80) [34].
  • PURPOSE: We attempted to replicate and improve on our previous study (N Engl J Med 322:297-302, 1990) that showed that 34-kd cathepsin D levels as determined by Western blotting strongly correlated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of axillary node-negative (N-) breast cancer patients [35].
  • Recently, it has been reported that islet transplantation into patients with Type 1 diabetes may achieve insulin independence for a year or longer [Shapiro et al., Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen, N Engl J Med. 343 (2000) 230-238] [36].
  • A previous meta-analysis of clinical analgesic trial studies showed generally low magnitudes of placebo analgesia (N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (2001) 1594) [37].
  • In 1989 two large-scale multicenter studies on the mortality and morbidity of transurethral resection of the prostate were published [Mebust et al.: J Urol 141:243-247, 1989; Roos et al.: N Engl J Med 320:1120-1124, 1989] [38].


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  13. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of muscle glucose-6-phosphate. Evidence for reduced insulin-dependent muscle glucose transport or phosphorylation activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Rothman, D.L., Shulman, R.G., Shulman, G.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  22. Detection of two distinct malignant B cell clones in a single patient using anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. Giardina, S.L., Schroff, R.W., Woodhouse, C.S., Golde, D.W., Oldham, R.K., Cleary, M.L., Sklar, J., Pritikin, N., Foon, K.A. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
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  28. Nine Japanese patients with immotile-dyskinetic cilia syndrome: an ultrastructural study using tannic acid-containing fixation. Torikata, C., Kawai, T., Nogawa, S., Ikeda, K., Shimizu, K., Kijimoto, C. Hum. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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