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Gene Review

CHIA  -  chitinase, acidic

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AMCASE, AMCase, Acidic mammalian chitinase, CHIT2, Lung-specific protein TSA1902, ...
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Disease relevance of CHIA

  • RESULTS: AMCase mRNA was detected in the sinus mucosa of 72% of control subjects and in 72% of patients with eosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) [1].
  • Circulating immune complexes were assayed employing the method recently described by Barnett and Chia in a group of patients with myasthenia gravis [2].
  • Roles of four chitinases (chia, chib, chic, and chid) in the chitin degradation system of marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 [3].
  • Immunoglobulin G antibodies to granulocytic ehrlichiosis were detected by an immunofluorescence assay using Ehrli- chia equi as antigen [4].
  • Recently we have described association of polymorphisms of AMCase with bronchial asthma in a pediatric population [5].

High impact information on CHIA

  • AMCase is capable of cleaving artificial chitin-like substrates as well as crab shell chitin and chitin as present in the fungal cell wall [6].
  • Human acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), a member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is one of the important proteins involved in Th2-mediated inflammation and has been implicated in asthma and allergic diseases [7].
  • Steady state kinetics shows that human AMCase has "low" intrinsic transglycosidase activity, which leads to the observation of apparent substrate inhibition [7].
  • Human AMCase also appears to cleave chitooligosaccharides from the nonreducing end primarily by disaccharide units [7].
  • ECF-L is a novel autocrine stimulator of osteoclast (OCL) formation that enhances the effects of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and RANK ligand (RANKL) and is increased in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis [8].

Biological context of CHIA


Anatomical context of CHIA

  • Immunostaining using mouse tissues detected intense immunoreactivity for AMCase in serous-type secretory cells of the parotid gland and von Ebner's gland [12].
  • At least in the mouse, AMCase is secreted into the saliva and gastric juice, and may function as a digestive enzyme or play a defensive role against chitinous pathogens [12].
  • Gastric chief cells, localized at the bottom of gastric glands, were also immunoreactive for AMCase [12].
  • AMCase mRNA expression has been demonstrated in the salivary gland and stomach of mice and in the stomach of humans, while a bovine homologue of AMCase is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood [12].
  • Among distal cells, AMCase colocalizes with epithelial cells expressing the Clara cell marker Clara cell secretory protein [9].

Associations of CHIA with chemical compounds


Other interactions of CHIA

  • Isolation and mapping of a human lung-specific gene, TSA1902, encoding a novel chitinase family member [15].
  • Failure of medical and surgical therapy in CRSwNP is associated with significantly increased expression of AMCase, but not the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and eotaxin [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHIA


  1. Increased expression of acidic mammalian chitinase in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Ramanathan, M., Lee, W.K., Lane, A.P. American journal of rhinology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Circulating immune complexes in myasthenia gravis: a study in relation to thymectomy, clinical severity and thymus histology. Bartoloni, C., Guidi, L., Scoppetta, C., Tonali, P., Bartoccioni, E., Flamini, G., Gambassi, G., Terranova, T. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Roles of four chitinases (chia, chib, chic, and chid) in the chitin degradation system of marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain O-7. Orikoshi, H., Nakayama, S., Miyamoto, K., Hanato, C., Yasuda, M., Inamori, Y., Tsujibo, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. First long-term study of the seroresponse to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among residents of a tick-endemic area of Sweden. Wittesjö, B., Bjöersdorff, A., Eliasson, I., Berglund, J. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic polymorphisms of chitotriosidase in Caucasian children with bronchial asthma. Bierbaum, S., Superti-Furga, A., Heinzmann, A. Int. J. Immunogenet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a novel acidic mammalian chitinase distinct from chitotriosidase. Boot, R.G., Blommaart, E.F., Swart, E., Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, K., Bijl, N., Moe, C., Place, A., Aerts, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Kinetic characterization of recombinant human acidic mammalian chitinase. Chou, Y.T., Yao, S., Czerwinski, R., Fleming, M., Krykbaev, R., Xuan, D., Zhou, H., Brooks, J., Fitz, L., Strand, J., Presman, E., Lin, L., Aulabaugh, A., Huang, X. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Eosinophil chemotactic factor-L (ECF-L) enhances osteoclast formation by increasing in osteoclast precursors expression of LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Garcia-Palacios, V., Yeon Chung, H., Jin Choi, S., Sarmasik, A., Kurihara, N., Won Lee, J., Galson, D.L., Collins, R., Roodman, G.D. Bone (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of chitinases identify subsets of murine airway epithelial cells in allergic inflammation. Homer, R.J., Zhu, Z., Cohn, L., Lee, C.G., White, W.I., Chen, S., Elias, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning of a rat lung fibrogenic factor. Chen, X.H., Xie, Z.H., Sun, S.J., Cai, G. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.). Cahill, J.P., Provance, M.C. J. Hered. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunohistochemical demonstration of acidic mammalian chitinase in the mouse salivary gland and gastric mucosa. Goto, M., Fujimoto, W., Nio, J., Iwanaga, T., Kawasaki, T. Arch. Oral Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Quantitation of Fatty Acids, Sterols, and Tocopherols in Turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus Chia) Growing Wild in Turkey. Matth??us, B., Ozcan, M.M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. Kivçak, B., Akay, S. Fitoterapia (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation and mapping of a human lung-specific gene, TSA1902, encoding a novel chitinase family member. Saito, A., Ozaki, K., Fujiwara, T., Nakamura, Y., Tanigami, A. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
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