The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

IGKV2-26  -  immunoglobulin kappa variable 2-26...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A21, IGKV226
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of IGKV2-26

  • Coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) is classified within the species Human enterovirus C (HEV-C) of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses [1].
  • Experimental Design: The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus (Coxsackievirus A21, CAV21) was assessed against in vitro cultures and in vivo xenografts of malignant human melanoma cells [2].
  • Competitive viral binding assays have revealed previously that coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) share a common cell surface receptor [3].
  • We also found that neither the human coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor nor intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1, which mediate the entry of coxsackie B viruses and coxsackievirus A21, respectively, functions as a receptor for EV70 [4].
  • In addition, virions lacking A21 were unable to mediate low pH-triggered cell-cell fusion [5].

High impact information on IGKV2-26

  • This domain comprises some of the eight carboxy-terminal residues of the B-chain and the A21 asparagine [6].
  • The phenotype of the L5R conditional lethal mutant is identical to that of recently described mutants in which expression of the A21, A28, and H2 genes is repressed [7].
  • Expression of the A21 protein occurred at late times of infection and was dependent on viral DNA replication [5].
  • The A21 protein contained two intramolecular disulfide bonds, the formation of which required the vaccinia virus-encoded cytoplasmic redox pathway, and was localized on the surface of the lipoprotein membrane of intracellular mature virions [5].
  • Coxsackievirus A21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys susceptible cells via specific viral capsid interactions with surface-expressed virus receptors comprising ICAM-1 and DAF [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of IGKV2-26


Biological context of IGKV2-26

  • Poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 but not coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus A21 or rhinovirus 14 provided efficient trans-encapsidation of poliovirus type 3 or type 3-derived replicons [10].
  • However, one analog with A21 glycine showed first-order absorption kinetics in pigs with a half-life of approximately 25 h, independent of the Zn2+ concentration [11].
  • Land application of biosolids resulted in risks that were <2 x 10(-4) from inhalation of coxsackievirus A21 [12].
  • The nucleotide sequence of the 3Cpro region thus sequenced showed striking homology with polioviruses and coxsackievirus A21 [13].
  • Based on the similarity of the nucleotide sequence of the 5' and 3' noncoding regions, together with the amino-acid sequence of the encoded proteins, EH24/70 appeared to be closely related to polioviruses and coxsackievirus A21 [14].

Anatomical context of IGKV2-26

  • MPCMK caused a reduction in the yields of the enteroviruses poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus A21 and of human rhinovirus 2 in infected HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of encephalomyocarditis virus, a picornavirus of the Cardiovirus genus [15].
  • Modification of the human insulin molecule at position A21 and at the C-terminus of the B-chain results in the formation of a stable compound that is soluble at pH 4.0, but forms amorphous microprecipitates in subcutaneous tissue from which small amounts of insulin glargine are gradually released [16].
  • In yield reduction studies in human embryonic lung fibroblast cells, pretreatment with 1.0 or 10 micrograms/ml of RRMA partially protected (greater than 90% titer reduction) against infection by RV 39 or coxsackie A21 (members of the major receptor family), but not by RV 1A (member of the minor receptor family) [17].

Associations of IGKV2-26 with chemical compounds

  • Fourteen hours after receiving the initial dose of either pleconaril or placebo, subjects were inoculated intranasally with 100 plaque-forming units of coxsackievirus A21 [8].
  • [Sar1, Iasn21-A] insulin differs from insulin in that both the A1 and A21 amino acid residues, glycine and asparagine, have been substituted by sarcosine and isoasparagine, respectively [18].
  • It was found that a chiral drug Naproxen (A21) was a highly efficient additive for Ti-catalyzed HDA reaction, affording 2-substituted 2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one in up to 97 % ee and >99 % yields [19].
  • In order to investigate the importance of this hydrogen bond for biological activity a gene for the single-chain precursor B-chain(1-29)-Ala-Ala-Lys-A-chain(1-21) featuring an A21 proline was synthesized [11].
  • However, acid solutions of insulin are chemically unstable as A21 asparagine both deamidates to aspartic acid and takes part in formation of covalent dimers via alpha-amino groups of other molecules [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IGKV2-26

  • In contrast, serial passage with bovine enterovirus, Coxsackievirus A21 or B3, or enterovirus 70 did not result in trans encapsidation, even though co-infection of cells with the replicon and different enteroviruses resulted in high-level expression of luciferase [20].
  • The uncertainty estimate was calculated for the peak area of insulin plus A21 desamido insulin resulting from an HPLC analysis of a sample of an injectable human insulin preparation, Actrapid HM 100 IU ml(-1) (Novo Nordisk A/S) [21].
  • Sequence analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments from the 5'-non-coding region of human enteroviruses identified a local strain of coxsackie virus A21 in the muscle [22].


  1. A nonpolio enterovirus with respiratory tropism causes poliomyelitis in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 transgenic mice. Dufresne, A.T., Gromeier, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21. Shafren, D.R., Au, G.G., Nguyen, T., Newcombe, N.G., Haley, E.S., Beagley, L., Johansson, E.S., Hersey, P., Barry, R.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Mouse cells expressing human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are susceptible to infection by coxsackievirus A21. Shafren, D.R., Dorahy, D.J., Greive, S.J., Burns, G.F., Barry, R.D. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Binding to decay-accelerating factor is not required for infection of human leukocyte cell lines by enterovirus 70. Haddad, A., Nokhbeh, M.R., Alexander, D.A., Dawe, S.J., Grisé, C., Gulzar, N., Dimock, K. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Vaccinia virus A21 virion membrane protein is required for cell entry and fusion. Townsley, A.C., Senkevich, T.G., Moss, B. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Mapping of the residues responsible for the negative cooperativity of the receptor-binding region of insulin. De Meyts, P., Van Obberghen, E., Roth, J. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. The product of the vaccinia virus L5R gene is a fourth membrane protein encoded by all poxviruses that is required for cell entry and cell-cell fusion. Townsley, A.C., Senkevich, T.G., Moss, B. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Clinical activity of pleconaril in an experimentally induced coxsackievirus A21 respiratory infection. Schiff, G.M., Sherwood, J.R. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. In vitro antiviral activity of the anthraquinone chrysophanic acid against poliovirus. Semple, S.J., Pyke, S.M., Reynolds, G.D., Flower, R.L. Antiviral Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Encapsidation studies of poliovirus subgenomic replicons. Barclay, W., Li, Q., Hutchinson, G., Moon, D., Richardson, A., Percy, N., Almond, J.W., Evans, D.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Soluble, prolonged-acting insulin derivatives. III. Degree of protraction, crystallizability and chemical stability of insulins substituted in positions A21, B13, B23, B27 and B30. Markussen, J., Diers, I., Hougaard, P., Langkjaer, L., Norris, K., Snel, L., Sørensen, A.R., Sørensen, E., Voigt, H.O. Protein Eng. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. A national study on the residential impact of biological aerosols from the land application of biosolids. Brooks, J.P., Tanner, B.D., Josephson, K.L., Gerba, C.P., Haas, C.N., Pepper, I.L. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The nucleotide sequence of 3C proteinase region of the coxsackievirus A24 variant: comparison of the isolates in Taiwan in 1985-1988. Lin, K.H., Takeda, N., Miyamura, K., Yamazaki, S., Chen, C.W. Virus Genes (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. The complete nucleotide sequence of a variant of Coxsackievirus A24, an agent causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Supanaranond, K., Takeda, N., Yamazaki, S. Virus Genes (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of proteolytic activity of poliovirus and rhinovirus 2A proteinases by elastase-specific inhibitors. Molla, A., Hellen, C.U., Wimmer, E. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Insulin glargine: an updated review of its use in the management of diabetes mellitus. Dunn, C.J., Plosker, G.L., Keating, G.M., McKeage, K., Scott, L.J. Drugs (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Protective effect of rhinovirus receptor blocking antibody in human fibroblast cells. Sperber, S.J., Hayden, F.G. Antiviral Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Synthesis of two biologically active insulin analogues with modifications at the N-terminal and N- and C-terminal amino acid residues. Cosmatos, A., Okada, Y., Katsoyannis, P.G. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Dramatically synergetic effect of carboxylic acid additive on tridentate titanium catalyzed enantioselective hetero-diels-alder reaction: additive acceleration and nonlinear effect. Yuan, Y., Long, J., Sun, J., Ding, K. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Demonstration of the specificity of poliovirus encapsidation using a novel replicon which encodes enzymatically active firefly luciferase. Porter, D.C., Ansardi, D.C., Wang, J., McPherson, S., Moldoveanu, Z., Morrow, C.D. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. From experimental design to uncertainty estimation for the European Pharmacopoeia HPLC analysis of human insulin. Brix, R., Spliid, H., Hansen, S.H., Sørensen, E. The Analyst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Localized thigh swelling mimicking a neoplastic process: involvement of coxsackie virus type A21. Dekel, B., Yoeli, R., Shulman, L., Padeh, S., Passwell, J.H. Acta Paediatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities