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Gene Review

FST  -  follistatin

Bos taurus

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High impact information on FST


Biological context of FST

  • Complete bovine follistatin cDNA coding sequences are presented including 1,029 bases of open reading frame, the 5' translational start codon, and the 3' translational stop codon [5].
  • Estimation of population subdivision using Wright's FST index showed that the average proportion of genetic variation explained by breed differences was 9% [6].
  • Our results suggest a slightly higher population differentiation across the candidate genes (FST = 0.108) than across microsatellites (FST = 0.095), possibly because of selection and stochastic effects [7].
  • Based on Wright's F-statistics, 4 loci were discarded, and the remaining 15 loci (FIT = 0.101, FST = 0.089, and FIS = 0.013) were used to compute the likelihood that each multilocus genotype of the total sample was drawn from its true breed instead of another breed [8].
  • Moreover, the binding protein was shown to inhibit the spontaneous FSH release from cultured pituitary cells as does follistatin [9].

Anatomical context of FST

  • We showed a positive regulation of FS mRNA after TGF-beta1 (1 ng/ml) treatment of freshly isolated granulosa cells from small-medium antral follicles (2-8 mm) [3].
  • Follistatin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on blastocyst yield from COCs (67% reduction, p < 0.05) and opposed the stimulatory effect of activin (p < 0.05) [10].
  • In summary, the degree of immunohistochemical expression of follistatin was phase specific for both follicles and corpora lutea [11].
  • In contrast, addition of 1-100 ng/ml follistatin significantly reduced the percentage of zygotes developing to morulae and blastocysts (29-31% and 17-20%, respectively) compared with no addition (41% and 28%, respectively) [12].
  • Follistatin was distributed in the perinuclear cytoplasm of granulosa and luteal cells but not in theca cells [11].

Associations of FST with chemical compounds

  • Each protein was found to have the same NH2-terminus and its sequence was identical to that of follistatin, which is a specific inhibitor of identical to that of follistatin, which is a specific inhibitor of FSH release [9].
  • Between 48-96 h and 96-144 h, FSH promoted (P < 0.0001) increases in output of inh A (6-fold), act A (15-fold), FS (6-fold), and E2 (18-fold), with maximal responses (in parentheses) elicited by 0.33 ng/ml FSH during the final period [13].
  • Addition of oocytes to FSH-stimulated cells dose-dependently suppressed (P < 0.0001) inh A (6-fold maximum suppression), act A (5.5-fold), FS (3.6-fold), E(2) (4.6-fold), and P(4) (2.4-fold), with suppression increasing with FSH dose [14].
  • Neither progesterone nor mifepristone affected inhibin A, activin A or follistatin production [15].
  • Treatment with testosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone, decreased (P < 0.05) endogenous follistatin and increased (P < 0.05) the activin A:follistatin ratio in maturation medium [15].

Other interactions of FST


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FST


  1. Molecular characterization of Xenopus embryo heparan sulfate. Differential structural requirements for the specific binding to basic fibroblast growth factor and follistatin. Yamane, Y., Tohno-oka, R., Yamada, S., Furuya, S., Shiokawa, K., Hirabayashi, Y., Sugino, H., Sugahara, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Oocytes prevent cumulus cell apoptosis by maintaining a morphogenic paracrine gradient of bone morphogenetic proteins. Hussein, T.S., Froiland, D.A., Amato, F., Thompson, J.G., Gilchrist, R.B. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Transforming growth factor beta1 regulates follistatin mRNA expression during in vitro bovine granulosa cell differentiation. Fazzini, M., Vallejo, G., Colman-Lerner, A., Trigo, R., Campo, S., Barañao, J.L., Saragüeta, P.E. J. Cell. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) -4, -6, and -7 potently suppress basal and luteinizing hormone-induced androgen production by bovine theca interna cells in primary culture: could ovarian hyperandrogenic dysfunction be caused by a defect in thecal BMP signaling? Glister, C., Richards, S.L., Knight, P.G. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and tissue expression of bovine follistatin cDNA. Houde, A., Lussier, J.G., Ethier, J.F., Gagnon, C., Silversides, D.W. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic diversity and differentiation in Portuguese cattle breeds using microsatellites. Mateus, J.C., Penedo, M.C., Alves, V.C., Ramos, M., Rangel-Figueiredo, T. Anim. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of population differentiation in North Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) using single nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes associated with production traits. Li, M.H., Adamowicz, T., Switonski, M., Ammosov, I., Ivanova, Z., Kiselyova, T., Popov, R., Kantanen, J. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Statistical analysis of individual assignment tests among four cattle breeds using fifteen STR loci. Ciampolini, R., Cetica, V., Ciani, E., Mazzanti, E., Fosella, X., Marroni, F., Biagetti, M., Sebastiani, C., Papa, P., Filippini, G., Cianci, D., Presciuttini, S. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Activin-binding protein is present in pituitary. Kogawa, K., Nakamura, T., Sugino, K., Takio, K., Titani, K., Sugino, H. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulatory actions of activin-A and follistatin on the developmental competence of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. Silva, C.C., Knight, P.G. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of follistatin in dominant and subordinate follicles and the corpus luteum of cattle. Singh, J., Adams, G.P. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Activin A and follistatin regulate developmental competence of In vitro-produced bovine embryos. Yoshioka, K., Suzuki, C., Iwamura, S. Biol. Reprod. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Interactions between follicle-stimulating hormone and growth factors in modulating secretion of steroids and inhibin-related peptides by nonluteinized bovine granulosa cells. Glister, C., Tannetta, D.S., Groome, N.P., Knight, P.G. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Oocyte-mediated suppression of follicle-stimulating hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-induced secretion of steroids and inhibin-related proteins by bovine granulosa cells in vitro: possible role of transforming growth factor alpha. Glister, C., Groome, N.P., Knight, P.G. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of androgens, progesterone and their antagonists on the developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes. Silva, C.C., Knight, P.G. J. Reprod. Fertil. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Pituitary follicular cells secrete both vascular endothelial growth factor and follistatin. Gospodarowicz, D., Lau, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Myostatin inhibits differentiation of bovine preadipocyte. Hirai, S., Matsumoto, H., Hino, N., Kawachi, H., Matsui, T., Yano, H. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Exogenous hormonal manipulation of ovarian activity in cattle. Diskin, M.G., Austin, E.J., Roche, J.F. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Radioimmunoassay of FSH-suppressing protein in the ewe: concentrations during the oestrous cycle and following ovariectomy. Klein, R., Findlay, J.K., Clarke, I.J., de Kretser, D.M., Robertson, D.M. J. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Bovine follicle development is associated with divergent changes in activin-A, inhibin-A and follistatin and the relative abundance of different follistatin isoforms in follicular fluid. Glister, C., Groome, N.P., Knight, P.G. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Active immunization against follistatin and its effect on FSH, follicle development and superovulation in heifers. Singh, J., Brogliatti, G.M., Christensen, C.R., Adams, G.P. Theriogenology (1999) [Pubmed]
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