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Gene Review

Fst  -  follistatin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Activin-binding protein, FOL1, FS, Follistatin, Fst-288, ...
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Disease relevance of Fst


Psychiatry related information on Fst

  • The assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) showing a significant increase in the distance travelled was observed in the 2% and 4% methanol-exposed groups in both the FS and FD animals when compared with their respective controls, but the effect was more marked in the FD group [6].

High impact information on Fst

  • Time-course studies in adult male and female rats showed that the increase in follistatin mRNA levels after GDX is rapid, with significant increases occurring within 24 h after GDX, and parallels or precedes increases in FSH beta mRNA levels and FSH secretion [1].
  • To assess the potential physiologic role of follistatin in the rat pituitary, we have investigated the effects of gonadectomy (GDX) and of sex steroid replacement on pituitary follistatin gene expression [1].
  • Follistatin is a glycoprotein, originally isolated from the gonads, that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) biosynthesis and secretion [1].
  • In contrast, therapy with testosterone propionate (500 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously daily for 7 d in GDX male rats resulted in a decrease in follistatin mRNA levels, towards but not completely back to baseline levels in intact males [1].
  • To this end, we infused follistatin, an activin antagonist, into the portal vein of the rat [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fst

  • A gradual loss in the body weight gain was observed in the pups exposed to 2% and 4% methanol in the FD group, while FS group exhibited this alteration only at 4% exposure [6].

Biological context of Fst


Anatomical context of Fst


Associations of Fst with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Fst

  • Evidence that PACAP and GnRH down-regulate follicle-stimulating hormone-beta mRNA levels by stimulating follistatin gene expression: effects on folliculostellate cells, gonadotrophs and LbetaT2 gonadotroph cells [9].
  • These experiments suggest a mechanism by which PACAP influences FSH production selectively by an autocrine effect on gonadotrophs and by a paracrine mechanism through folliculostellate cells that involves follistatin [9].
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency regulates expression of pituitary follistatin messenger ribonucleic acid: a mechanism for differential gonadotrope function [17].
  • Activin raised basal as well as FSH-stimulated steady-state follistatin mRNA levels up to ten- and twofold above controls respectively, whereas epidermal growth factor was found to inhibit FSH-stimulated follistatin mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner [18].
  • Follistatin can inhibit PSC activation and collagen secretion by blocking autocrined activin A and decreasing TGF-beta expression and secretion of PSCs [2].

Other interactions of Fst


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fst


  1. Regulation of follistatin messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the rat pituitary. Kaiser, U.B., Chin, W.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Activin A is an autocrine activator of rat pancreatic stellate cells: potential therapeutic role of follistatin for pancreatic fibrosis. Ohnishi, N., Miyata, T., Ohnishi, H., Yasuda, H., Tamada, K., Ueda, N., Mashima, H., Sugano, K. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Activin stimulates proliferation of rat ovarian thecal-interstitial cells. Duleba, A.J., Pehlivan, T., Carbone, R., Spaczynski, R.Z. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Differentially expressed genes in two LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines reflecting changes during prostate cancer progression. Vaarala, M.H., Porvari, K., Kyllönen, A., Vihko, P. Lab. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of follistatin, an activin-binding protein, in vascular smooth muscle cells and arteriosclerotic lesions. Inoue, S., Orimo, A., Hosoi, T., Matsuse, T., Hashimoto, M., Yamada, R., Ouchi, Y., Orimo, H., Muramatsu, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Methanol-induced neurotoxicity in pups exposed during lactation through mother: role of folic acid. Aziz, M.H., Agrawal, A.K., Adhami, V.M., Ali, M.M., Baig, M.A., Seth, P.K. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of activin and transforming growth factor-beta in the regulation of organ mass in the rat liver. Kogure, K., Zhang, Y.Q., Maeshima, A., Suzuki, K., Kuwano, H., Kojima, I. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of inhibin beta A and beta B, follistatin and activin-A receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in the rat seminiferous epithelium. Kaipia, A., Penttilä, T.L., Shimasaki, S., Ling, N., Parvinen, M., Toppari, J. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence that PACAP and GnRH down-regulate follicle-stimulating hormone-beta mRNA levels by stimulating follistatin gene expression: effects on folliculostellate cells, gonadotrophs and LbetaT2 gonadotroph cells. Fujii, Y., Okada, Y., Moore, J.P., Dalkin, A.C., Winters, S.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of inhibin betaA, betaB and follistatin mRNAs in the carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver regeneration model. Kobayashi, T., Niimi, S., Hashimoto, O., Hayakawa, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Evidence that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide suppresses follicle-stimulating hormone-beta messenger ribonucleic acid levels by stimulating follistatin gene transcription. Winters, S.J., Dalkin, A.C., Tsujii, T. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression patterns of Wnt and beta-catenin/TCF target genes in the uterus of immature female rats exposed to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol. Katayama, S., Ashizawa, K., Fukuhara, T., Hiroyasu, M., Tsuzuki, Y., Tatemoto, H., Nakada, T., Nagai, K. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Sex difference in the action of activin-A on cell proliferation of differentiating rat gonad. Kaipia, A., Toppari, J., Huhtaniemi, I., Paranko, J. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of the pituitary gonadotropin subunit genes during male rat sexual maturation: reciprocal relationship between hypothalamic pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and follicle-stimulating hormone beta expression. Moore, J.P., Wilson, L., Dalkin, A.C., Winters, S.J. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of inhibin beta chains and follistatin mRNA levels during rat hepatocyte growth induced by the peroxisome proliferator di-n-butyl phthalate. Kobayashi, T., Niimi, S., Fukuoka, M., Hayakawa, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Crystal structures of the heparan sulfate-binding domain of follistatin. Insights into ligand binding. Innis, C.A., Hyvönen, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency regulates expression of pituitary follistatin messenger ribonucleic acid: a mechanism for differential gonadotrope function. Kirk, S.E., Dalkin, A.C., Yasin, M., Haisenleder, D.J., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of steady-state follistatin mRNA levels in rat granulosa cells in vitro. Michel, U., McMaster, J.W., Findlay, J.K. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene expression through an activin/follistatin autocrine or paracrine loop. Besecke, L.M., Guendner, M.J., Schneyer, A.L., Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Jameson, J.L., Weiss, J. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-beta and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-beta gene transcription by androgens: testosterone directly stimulates FSH-beta transcription independent from its role on follistatin gene expression. Burger, L.L., Haisenleder, D.J., Aylor, K.W., Dalkin, A.C., Prendergast, K.A., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of pituitary follistatin and inhibin/activin subunit messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in male and female rats: evidence for inhibin regulation of follistatin mRNA in females. Dalkin, A.C., Haisenleder, D.J., Gilrain, J.T., Aylor, K., Yasin, M., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Dynamic regulation of pituitary follistatin messenger ribonucleic acids during the rat estrous cycle. Halvorson, L.M., Weiss, J., Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Jameson, J.L. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Follistatin gene expression in the pituitary: localization in gonadotropes and folliculostellate cells in diestrous rats. Kaiser, U.B., Lee, B.L., Carroll, R.S., Unabia, G., Chin, W.W., Childs, G.V. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
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