The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on Metestrus


Biological context of Metestrus


Anatomical context of Metestrus


Associations of Metestrus with chemical compounds

  • Progesterone levels were significantly greater in animals treated on metestrus and killed 24 h later [16].
  • When both RU486 and anti-I were given on estrus (1230 and 1700 h, respectively), RU486 failed to block the anti-I-induced rise in serum FSH on the next morning of metestrus, in contrast to the blockade seen with RU486 treatment on the day of proestrus [17].
  • Despite this difference in levels, both analytic techniques showed a decline in uterine norepinephrine from diestrus to estrus, followed by a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in norepinephrine on the day of metestrus [6].
  • To further investigate these facts, 4-day cyclic rats, treated with either 1 mg bromocriptine (CB) or 0.25 ml 70% ethanol (ETOH) at 1600 h on estrus, were injected with 0.5 ml of either an anti-LH serum (LHAS) or normal horse serum (NHS) at 0800 h on metestrus [18].
  • On the morning of metestrus of the fourth cycle (18 h after the last fluoxetine injection), the rats were injected with a sub-maximal dose of the 5-HT(1A) agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 50 MICRO/kg, s.c.) or a maximal dose of the 5-HT(2A) agonist [(+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl] (DOI) [8].

Gene context of Metestrus

  • There was a three-fold increase in GnRH receptor mRNA levels on the afternoon of proestrus (PRO) when compared to levels observed on the morning of metestrus (MET) [19].
  • We demonstrate that the pattern of expression of GnRH-R mRNA in spleen agrees closely with the pattern in the pituitaries of the same mice and the pattern previously reported in the rat pituitary, with significantly increased levels of expression seen on the afternoon of proestrus compared to the morning of metestrus [20].
  • UCP1 mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue were more elevated during pro-estrus than during metestrus (F = 3.17, p = 0.039) [21].
  • OTR mRNA levels during the estrous cycle began to increase on diestrus (P<0.05, vs value on estrus), reached maximal increase both in the morning (1000-1130 hr) and afternoon (1600-1630 hr) on proestrus (P<0.01, vs metestrus, diestrus and estrus) and then declined on estrus [22].
  • Between 1800 h on metestrus and 1800 h on diestrus, the pituitary content of GnRH receptors increased to 200 fmol/gland or greater in each of three separate experiments [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Metestrus


  1. Hepatic prolactin binding in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet high in corn oil. Wetsel, W.C., Rogers, A.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of cellular retinol- and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins in the rat cervical epithelium is regulated by endocrine stimuli during normal squamous metaplasia. Tannous-Khuri, L., Hillemanns, P., Rajan, N., Wright, T.C., Talmage, D.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Steroid hormones modulate H19 gene expression in both mammary gland and uterus. Adriaenssens, E., Lottin, S., Dugimont, T., Fauquette, W., Coll, J., Dupouy, J.P., Boilly, B., Curgy, J.J. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Investigation of estrogen status and increased stroke sensitivity on cerebral blood flow after a focal ischemic insult. Carswell, H.V., Anderson, N.H., Morton, J.J., McCulloch, J., Dominiczak, A.F., Macrae, I.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Bipotential effects of estrogen on growth hormone synthesis and storage in vitro. Childs, G.V., Iruthayanathan, M., Akhter, N., Unabia, G., Whitehead-Johnson, B. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Uterine catecholamines and prostaglandins during the estrous cycle of the rat. Van Orden, D.E., Goodale, D.B., Baker, H.A., Farley, D.B., Bhatnagar, R.K. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential expression of growth hormone messenger ribonucleic acid by somatotropes and gonadotropes in male and cycling female rats. Childs, G.V., Unabia, G., Wu, P. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of cycling female rats with fluoxetine induces desensitization of hypothalamic 5-HT(1A) receptors with no change in 5-HT(2A) receptors. Van de Kar, L.D., Raap, D.K., Battaglia, G., Muma, N.A., Garcia, F., DonCarlos, L.L. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of bFGF mRNA in cyclic rat ovary, diethylstilbesterol primed rat ovary, and cultured rat granulosa cells. Guthridge, M., Bertolini, J., Cowling, J., Hearn, M.T. Growth Factors (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Manipulation of estrous cycle in dwarf goat (Capra hircus) using estrumate under different management conditions. Khanum, S.A., Hussain, M., Kausar, R. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute increase in responsiveness of luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone nerve terminals to neuropeptide-Y stimulation before the preovulatory LH surge. Besecke, L.M., Levine, J.E. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Ovarian prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase: cellular localization during the rat estrous cycle. Curry, T.E., Bryant, C., Haddix, A.C., Clark, M.R. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Abnormal uterine stromal and glandular function associated with maternal reproductive defects in Hoxa-11 null mice. Gendron, R.L., Paradis, H., Hsieh-Li, H.M., Lee, D.W., Potter, S.S., Markoff, E. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Changes in catecholamine content in discrete brain nuclei during the estrous cycle of the rat. Crowley, W.R., O'Donohue, T.L., Jacobowitz, D.M. Brain Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Fine structure of the corpus luteum of the autografted ovary in the rat. Bagwell, J.N., Chihal, H.J., Peppler, R.D. Cell Tissue Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Recombinant human inhibin A and recombinant human activin A regulate pituitary and ovarian function in the adult female rat. Woodruff, T.K., Krummen, L.A., Lyon, R.J., Stocks, D.L., Mather, J.P. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. RU486 on an estrogen background blocks the rise in serum follicle-stimulating hormone induced by antiserum to inhibin or ovariectomy. Knox, K.L., Ringstrom, S.J., Szabo, M., Perlyn, C.A., Sutandi, S., Schwartz, N.B. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Pituitary regulation of corpus luteum progesterone secretion in cyclic rats. Sánchez-Criado, J.E., López, F., Aguilar, E. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Dynamic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary gland during the rat estrous cycle. Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Hollenberg, A.N., Jameson, J.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Cyclical expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor mRNA in lymphoid organs. Jacobson, J.D., Crofford, L.J., Sun, L., Wilder, R.L. Neuroendocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of estrous cycle and steroid replacement on the expression of leptin and uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue in the rat. Luukkaa, V., Savontaus, E., Rouru, J., Virtanen, K.A., Boss, O., Huhtaniemi, I., Koulu, M., Pesonen, U., Huupponen, R. Gynecol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes of receptor mRNAs for oxytocin and estrogen during the estrous cycle in rat uterus. Murata, T., Narita, K., Honda, K., Higuchi, T. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the rat estrous cycle. Clayton, R.N., Solano, A.R., Garcia-Vela, A., Dufau, M.L., Catt, K.J. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the ovary during the rat estrous cycle. Bauer-Dantoin, A.C., Jameson, J.L. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in cyclic rats lacking progesterone actions. Sánchez-Criado, J.E., Galiot, F., Bellido, C., Gonzalez, D., Tébar, M. Biol. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase-alpha activity in hamster follicles during the estrous cycle: roles of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Roy, S.K., Greenwald, G.S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence that neuronal nitric oxide synthase but not heme oxygenase increases in the hypothalamus on proestrus afternoon. Lamar, C.A., Bhat, G.K., Mahesh, V.B., Brann, D.W. Neuroendocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of p53 in luminal and glandular epithelium during the growth and regression of rat uterus during the estrous cycle. Mendoza-Rodríguez, C.A., Merchant-Larios, H., Segura-Valdez Md, M.d.e. .L., Moreno-Mendoza, N., Cruz, M.E., Arteaga-López, P., Camacho-Arroyo, I., Dominguez, R., Cerbón, M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities