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Gene Review

acin1a  -  apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer 1a

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SO:0000704, acinus, acinusa, acinusl, ik:tdsubc_2g5, ...
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High impact information on acin1a

  • During development, the role of the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) in the removal of apoptotic cells that have died is poorly understood [1].
  • Consequently, increased cell death is detected indicating that the placodal progenitor cells take on an apoptotic pathway [2].
  • No marked differences are seen in cell proliferation and apoptotic patterns around the time the rostralization of gene expression becomes evident in the mutants [3].
  • Apart from phagocytosing apoptotic corpses, these macrophages were observed to engulf and destroy large amounts of bacteria injected intravenously; the macrophages also sensed the presence of bacteria injected into body cavities that are isolated from the blood, migrated into these cavities and eradicated the microorganisms [4].
  • Twelve amino acids in the C terminus of Pen-2 were dispensable and could not rescue the Pen-2 knockdown-induced apoptotic phenotype [5].

Biological context of acin1a


Anatomical context of acin1a


Associations of acin1a with chemical compounds

  • By using both the terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine nick-end labeling method and bis-benzimide labeling, the current study showed that, in the normal adult olfactory bulb, cells exhibiting apoptotic profiles were scarce and were localized to the outer layers of the bulb [13].
  • Dying cells in the brain were assessed by acridine orange staining (these cells are likely to be apoptotic) [14].
  • After 72 h following transfection of fish kidney cells, 35% of cells transfected with the zebra fish caspase-3 construct, pZCASP3His, showed apoptotic morphology when compared with cells transfected with the mock vector or an expression construct (pZCASP3His mutant) encoding the caspase-3 mutant lacking Cys [15].

Other interactions of acin1a

  • Our results demonstrate that knockdown of Pen-2 directly induces a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway that contributes to neuronal loss and suggest that Pen-2 plays an important role in promoting neuronal cell survival and protecting from apoptosis in vivo [16].
  • Previous studies showed that red-light blindness in pob is due to the specific loss of long-wavelength photoreceptor cells via an apoptotic mechanism [17].
  • Two independent measures, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end label (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the pyknotic cells in the mutant retinae are apoptotic [18].
  • TUNEL assay revealed significant increasing of apoptosis in liver after 5 days post fertilization and the increasing of apoptosis was observed to be associated with the up-regulation of apoptotic genes such as, bad, bax, P-38a, caspase-3 and 8, and JNK-1 [19].
  • Embryo proteins induced a significant reduction in FLIP levels, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity as well as the apoptotic rate [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acin1a


  1. Phosphatidylserine receptor is required for the engulfment of dead apoptotic cells and for normal embryonic development in zebrafish. Hong, J.R., Lin, G.H., Lin, C.J., Wang, W.P., Lee, C.C., Lin, T.L., Wu, J.L. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The zebrafish forkhead transcription factor Foxi1 specifies epibranchial placode-derived sensory neurons. Lee, S.A., Shen, E.L., Fiser, A., Sali, A., Guo, S. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Isthmus-to-midbrain transformation in the absence of midbrain-hindbrain organizer activity. Jászai, J., Reifers, F., Picker, A., Langenberg, T., Brand, M. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Ontogeny and behaviour of early macrophages in the zebrafish embryo. Herbomel, P., Thisse, B., Thisse, C. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The Cytosolic Loop of the {gamma}-Secretase Component Presenilin Enhancer 2 Protects Zebrafish Embryos from Apoptosis. Zetterberg, H., Campbell, W.A., Yang, H.W., Xia, W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Antiangiogenic and vascular-targeting activity of the microtubule-destabilizing trans-resveratrol derivative 3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene. Belleri, M., Ribatti, D., Nicoli, S., Cotelli, F., Forti, L., Vannini, V., Stivala, L.A., Presta, M. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. From oogenesis through gastrulation: developmental regulation of apoptosis. Greenwood, J., Gautier, J. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental activation of the capability to undergo checkpoint-induced apoptosis in the early zebrafish embryo. Ikegami, R., Hunter, P., Yager, T.D. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Bax and other pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family "killer-proteins" and their victim the mitochondrion. Antonsson, B. Cell Tissue Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A transient population of neurons pioneers the olfactory pathway in the zebrafish. Whitlock, K.E., Westerfield, M. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah, S., Mountcastle-Shah, E., Harvey, M., Solnica-Krezel, L., Schier, A.F., Stemple, D.L., Malicki, J., Neuhauss, S.C., Zwartkruis, F., Stainier, D.Y., Rangini, Z., Driever, W. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Eya1 is required for lineage-specific differentiation, but not for cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Nica, G., Herzog, W., Sonntag, C., Nowak, M., Schwarz, H., Zapata, A.G., Hammerschmidt, M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Apoptosis following peripheral sensory deafferentation in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish. Vankirk, A.M., Byrd, C.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Zebrafish as a model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Ton, C., Lin, Y., Willett, C. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Zebrafish caspase-3: molecular cloning, characterization, crystallization and phylogenetic analysis. Chakraborty, C., Nandi, S.S., Sinha, S., Gera, V.K. Protein Pept. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Zebrafish lacking Alzheimer presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2) demonstrate excessive p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal loss. Campbell, W.A., Yang, H., Zetterberg, H., Baulac, S., Sears, J.A., Liu, T., Wong, S.T., Zhong, T.P., Xia, W. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The zebrafish pob gene encodes a novel protein required for survival of red cone photoreceptor cells. Taylor, M.R., Kikkawa, S., Diez-Juan, A., Ramamurthy, V., Kawakami, K., Carmeliet, P., Brockerhoff, S.E. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Inherited retinal degeneration and apoptosis in mutant zebrafish. Daly, F.J., Sandell, J.H. Anat. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Thioacetamide induced liver damage in zebrafish embryo as a disease model for steatohepatitis. Amali, A.A., Rekha, R.D., Lin, C.J., Wang, W.L., Gong, H.Y., Her, G.M., Wu, J.L. J. Biomed. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Zebrafish embryo proteins induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (Caco2). Cucina, A., Biava, P.M., D'Anselmi, F., Coluccia, P., Conti, F., di Clemente, R., Miccheli, A., Frati, L., Gulino, A., Bizzarri, M. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The perplexed and confused mutations affect distinct stages during the transition from proliferating to post-mitotic cells within the zebrafish retina. Link, B.A., Kainz, P.M., Ryou, T., Dowling, J.E. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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