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Gene Review

Acin1  -  apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2610036I19Rik, 2610510L13Rik, Acinus, Acn, Apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in the nucleus, ...
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Disease relevance of Acin1

  • The mouse and rat liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) genes (Fabpl) represent an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms that determine differentiation-dependent, cell lineage-specific, and distinct regional patterns of expression along the crypt-to-villus and duodenal-to-ileal axes of the gut, as well as within the liver acinus [1].
  • Pulmonary oxygen toxicity is an example of a diffuse lesion throughout the distal portion of the acinus whereas ozone exposure is an example of an environmental pollutant causing a greater degree of lung injury in the proximal alveolar region and in the small airways [2].
  • Mouse mammary tissue can give rise to several characteristic types of premalignant hyperplasia and tumor, originating in a duct or acinus, that progress to carcinoma [3].
  • It could be conclusively observed that the localization of the VIP- and SP-like immunoreactivities were different in the submaxillary ganglion, in the nerves around blood vessels and acinus areas, but very similar in the areas of the excretory and striated duct of the SMG [4].

High impact information on Acin1

  • Here we use an in vitro system to identify a new nuclear factor, designated Acinus, which induces apoptotic chromatin condensation after cleavage by caspase-3 without inducing DNA fragmentation [5].
  • Within a reconstituted basement membrane, the MUC(+)/ESA(+) epithelial cell line formed acinus-like spheres [6].
  • Signaling through gap junction channels contributes to the homeostasis of the exocrine pancreas by coordinating acinar cell activity within an acinus [7].
  • Using microiontophoretic acetylcholine (ACh) application, it was possible to evoke almost complete electrical uncoupling of two previously coupled pancreatic or lacrimal acinar cells from different acini or within one acinus [8].
  • GST-II immunostaining of hepatocytes was diffuse and occurred in periportal regions of hepatic acinus, whereas perivenous areas were weakly stained or were stain-free [9].

Biological context of Acin1

  • The PEPCK transgenes were expressed specifically in the periportal region of the liver acinus and although vitamin A deficiency caused a decrease in PEPCK transgene mRNA levels in periportal cells, it did not alter the periportal cell-specific pattern of expression [10].
  • However, whether or not the site of gene expression is restricted to specific compartments within the liver acinus, the rate of expression of the gene involved can also be adaptively regulated [11].
  • Passing direct current through one intracellular electrode, the resting potential of an acinus could be set at desired levels and the dependency of the ACh-evoked potential change on the resting potential investigated [12].

Anatomical context of Acin1


Associations of Acin1 with chemical compounds

  • Clones were examined for formation of acinus-like spheres, deposition of basement membrane components, production of sialomucin, polarization, and growth arrest [18].
  • The induction of iNOS and the inducible cytotoxic effect of LPS appear to be primarily located within the TPV region of the liver acinus [19].
  • Both in 1 mM Tris buffer and in 35% acetonitrile, 0.1% trifluoracetic acid (ACN/TFA), all of the peptides formed macromolecular assemblies consisting of twisted, approximately 40- to 60-A-thick ribbons, which varied in width from around 40-70 A (for 11-mer apoSAA2 in Tris) up to 900 A (for the other peptides) [20].
  • In in-vitro susceptibility testings, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and peptide were highly sensitive, and minocycline and doxycycline were the most active of 21 antibiotics tested against 84 clinical isolates of Acin. calcoaceticus [21].
  • The first cutaneous nerve to reach the skin surface in rats is the later cutaneous nerve (PCN and ACN) at E13.5 days [22].

Other interactions of Acin1

  • ICAM-1 expression showed a much stronger and more uniform expression across the acinus with the peak reached by 4 h and sustained for longer than 48 h after lipopolysaccharide administration [23].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that arginase I was enriched in the striated duct, and was also present in the acinus, demilune and granulated duct [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acin1

  • Intracellular iontophoresis of the dye Lucifer Yellow CH into a single cell indicated that small molecules could spread by means of intercellular cytoplasmic bridges througout an acinus and, occasionally, into cells of adjacent acini [25].
  • Mitotic index analysis showed that proliferative cells appear to be unevenly distributed in the hepatic acinus and were mainly located in the vicinity of the damaged acinar region [26].
  • Serial isologous transplantation of the tumors results in nearly complete dedifferentiation to a solid tumor, in which only electron-microscopically rudimentary acinus-like microlumina can be observed [27].
  • For analysis of the structural composition of the pulmonary acinus in the mouse, fixed lungs of adult mice were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy [28].


  1. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (Fabpl) that regulate its cell lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and spatial patterns of expression in the gut epithelium and in the liver acinus. Simon, T.C., Roth, K.A., Gordon, J.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Application of morphometric methods to study diffuse and focal injury in the lung caused by toxic agents. Barry, B.E., Crapo, J.D. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Multistep mouse mammary tumorigenesis through preneoplasia to neoplasia and acquisition of metastatic potential. Tsubura, A., Yoshizawa, K., Uehara, N., Yuri, T., Matsuoka, Y. Medical molecular morphology (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. A comparative study of the localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide- and substance P-like immunoreactivities in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Letić-Gavrilović, A., Shibaike, S., Fukai, S., Naruse, S., Abe, K. Shika Kiso Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of oral biology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Acinus is a caspase-3-activated protein required for apoptotic chromatin condensation. Sahara, S., Aoto, M., Eguchi, Y., Imamoto, N., Yoneda, Y., Tsujimoto, Y. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Gudjonsson, T., Villadsen, R., Nielsen, H.L., Rønnov-Jessen, L., Bissell, M.J., Petersen, O.W. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Severe acute pancreatitis and reduced acinar cell apoptosis in the exocrine pancreas of mice deficient for the Cx32 gene. Frossard, J.L., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Wallig, M.A., Benathan, M., Ott, T., Morel, P., Hadengue, A., Suter, S., Willecke, K., Chanson, M. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Electrical coupling and uncoupling of exocrine acinar cells. Iwatsuki, N., Petersen, O.H. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Pi-class glutathione-S-transferase-positive hepatocytes in aging B6C3F1 mice undergo apoptosis induced by dietary restriction. Muskhelishvili, L., Turturro, A., Hart, R.W., James, S.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Retinoid regulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in liver. Shin, D.J., Odom, D.P., Scribner, K.B., Ghoshal, S., McGrane, M.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Development of enzymic zonation in liver parenchyma is related to development of acinar architecture. Lamers, W.H., Gaasbeek Janzen, J.W., Kortschot, A.T., Charles, R., Moorman, A.F. Differentiation (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Parotid acinar cells: ionic dependence of acetylcholine-evoked membrane potential changes. Roberts, M.L., Iwatsuki, N., Petersen, O.H. Pflugers Arch. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Infiltration of tumour cells into cultures of isolated hepatocytes. Roos, E., Van de Pavert, I.V., Middelkoop, O.P. J. Cell. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Meibomian gland dysfunction. I. Keratin protein expression in normal human and rabbit meibomian glands. Jester, J.V., Nicolaides, N., Smith, R.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Pancreatic acinar cells: the role of calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling. Petersen, O.H., Ueda, N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. An ultrastructural examination of non-lymphoid host cells of Moloney murine leukaemia virus of CFW/D mice. Freebeck, P.C., MacLeod, R., O'Brien, T. J. Gen. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Ultrastructure and biological markers of neoplastic change in adult mouse epithelial cells transformed in vitro. Knowles, M.A., Franks, L.M. Br. J. Cancer (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel function for the nm23-H1 gene: overexpression in human breast carcinoma cells leads to the formation of basement membrane and growth arrest. Howlett, A.R., Petersen, O.W., Steeg, P.S., Bissell, M.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of B16F1 melanoma cell metastasis by inducible functions of the hepatic microvasculature. Wang, H.H., McIntosh, A.R., Hasinoff, B.B., MacNeil, B., Rector, E., Nance, D.M., Orr, F.W. Eur. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro amyloid fibril formation by synthetic peptides corresponding to the amino terminus of apoSAA isoforms from amyloid-susceptible and amyloid-resistant mice. Kirschner, D.A., Elliott-Bryant, R., Szumowski, K.E., Gonnerman, W.A., Kindy, M.S., Sipe, J.D., Cathcart, E.S. J. Struct. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. In-vitro and in-vivo activities of antimicrobial agents against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Obana, Y., Nishino, T., Tanino, T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Differentiation of the anterior body wall and truncal epidermis and associated co-migration of cutaneous nerves and mesenchyme. Munger, G.T., Munger, B.L. Anat. Rec. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Murine hepatic microvascular adhesion molecule expression is inducible and has a zonal distribution. Wang, H.H., Nance, D.M., Orr, F.W. Clin. Exp. Metastasis (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression and regulation of the gene for arginase I in mouse salivary glands: requirement of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha for the expression in the parotid gland. Akiba, T., Kuroiwa, N., Shimizu-Yabe, A., Iwase, K., Hiwasa, T., Yokoe, H., Kubosawa, H., Kageyama, R., Darlington, G.J., Mori, M., Tanzawa, H., Takiguchi, M., Dahrington, G.J. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Physiological and morphological evidence for coupling in mouse salivary gland acinar cells. Kater, S.B., Galvin, N.J. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Cocaine-induced liver injury in mice elicits specific changes in DNA ploidy and induces programmed death of hepatocytes. Cascales, M., Alvarez, A., Gascó, P., Fernández-Simón, L., Sanz, N., Boscá, L. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. The correlation between tissue differentiation and production of mammary tumor virus (MTV) in transplanted murine mammary tumors. Electron microscopic observations. Schöpper, C., Fasske, E., Fetting, R., Themann, H. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. The structural composition of the pulmonary acinus in the mouse. A scanning electron microscopical and developmental-biological analysis. ten Have-Opbroek, A.A. Anat. Embryol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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