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Gene Review

TGFB2  -  transforming growth factor, beta 2

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of TGFB2


High impact information on TGFB2

  • TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3 and the ligand-binding TGF-beta receptor can be detected immunocytochemically in the central retina, a region where apoptosis is most prominent during the early period of PCD [4].
  • The experiments consisted of local administration of TGF beta-1, TGF beta-2 or BMP-4 by means of heparin or Affi-gel blue beads to the chick limb autopod in the stages preceding the onset of interdigital cell death [5].
  • Here we report characterization of an essential E-box motif, positioned at -50/-45 between a previously described functional cAMP response element/activating transcription factor site and the TATA box of the human TGF-beta2 promoter [6].
  • The importance of the E-box motif described in this study is supported by the presence of an E-box motif in the same position in the chicken TGF-beta2 gene promoter [6].
  • Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) is an important regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation; however, its transcriptional regulation is not well understood [6].

Biological context of TGFB2


Anatomical context of TGFB2

  • In chondrocytes and fibroblasts, the 3.9- and 4.3-kb TGF-beta 2 mRNAs are both expressed at higher levels than the 8-kb TGF-beta 2 mRNA; however, in developing chicken embryos, the level of expression of the 8-kb mRNA is higher than that of the 3.9- and 4.3-kb mRNAs [8].
  • In contrast, expression of TGF-beta s 2, 3, and 4 mRNAs was constitutive in myocytes cultured from 7- to 9-day-old embryonic hearts; expression of TGF-beta s 3 and 4 mRNAs increased, while expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA remained unchanged in myocytes from 10-day-old embryos [12].
  • At embryonic day (E) 3, TGF-beta 3 mRNA as well as TGF-beta 2 and 3 immunoreactivities (IRs) were most prominent in the notochord, wall of the aorta, and dermomyotome [13].
  • In chicken hearts, both transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3) and TGF-beta2 are present and have been identified as being important in the production of cushion mesenchyme [14].
  • At E5 and E7, strong TGF-beta 2 and 3 IR were seen in or on radial glia of spinal cord and hindbrain [13].

Associations of TGFB2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of TGFB2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGFB2


  1. Association of INOS, TRAIL, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and IgL genes with response to Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Malek, M., Lamont, S.J. Genet. Sel. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The release and activation of transforming growth factor beta2 associated with apoptosis of chick hypertrophic chondrocytes. Gibson, G., Lin, D.L., Wang, X., Zhang, L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of bFGF and TGF-beta 2 in experimental myopia in chicks. Seko, Y., Shimokawa, H., Tokoro, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. TGF-beta modulates programmed cell death in the retina of the developing chick embryo. Dünker, N., Schuster, N., Krieglstein, K. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of TGF beta s and BMPs as signals controlling the position of the digits and the areas of interdigital cell death in the developing chick limb autopod. Gañan, Y., Macias, D., Duterque-Coquillaud, M., Ros, M.A., Hurle, J.M. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcription of the transforming growth factor-beta2 gene is dependent on an E-box located between an essential cAMP response element/activating transcription factor motif and the TATA box of the gene. Scholtz, B., Kingsley-Kallesen, M., Rizzino, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of transforming growth factor beta genes with quantitative trait loci for antibody response kinetics in hens. Zhou, H., Lamont, S.J. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning of an mRNA encoding transforming growth factor-beta 2 from chicken embryo chondrocytes. Jakowlew, S.B., Dillard, P.J., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. Growth Factors (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. A SstI RFLP at the chicken transforming growth factor-beta 2 locus (TGFB2). Morrice, D.R., Burt, D.W. Anim. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo. Jakowlew, S.B., Ciment, G., Tuan, R.S., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. Differentiation (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Chicken quantitative trait loci for growth and body composition associated with transforming growth factor-beta genes. Li, H., Deeb, N., Zhou, H., Mitchell, A.D., Ashwell, C.M., Lamont, S.J. Poult. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta s 1-4 in chicken embryo chondrocytes and myocytes. Jakowlew, S.B., Dillard, P.J., Winokur, T.S., Flanders, K.C., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression, localization, and function of transforming growth factor-beta s in embryonic chick spinal cord, hindbrain, and dorsal root ganglia. Unsicker, K., Meier, C., Krieglstein, K., Sartor, B.M., Flanders, K.C. J. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Production of the transforming growth factor-beta binding protein endoglin is regulated during chick heart development. Vincent, E.B., Runyan, R.B., Weeks, D.L. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential regulation of the expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNAs by growth factors and retinoic acid in chicken embryo chondrocytes, myocytes, and fibroblasts. Jakowlew, S.B., Cubert, J., Danielpour, D., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. J. Cell. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta on decorin and beta1 integrin expression during muscle development in chickens. Li, X., McFarland, D.C., Velleman, S.G. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Immune responses in Eimeria acervulina infected one-day-old broilers compared to amount of Eimeria in the duodenum, measured by real-time PCR. Swinkels, W.J., Post, J., Cornelissen, J.B., Engel, B., Boersma, W.J., Rebel, J.M. Vet. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and bFGF on chick cartilage and muscle cell differentiation. Schofield, J.N., Wolpert, L. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential expression of genes associated with collagen fibril growth in the chicken tendon: identification of structural and regulatory genes by subtractive hybridization. Nurminskaya, M.V., Birk, D.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide. Sijben, J.W., Schrama, J.W., Parmentier, H.K., van der Poel, J.J., Klasing, K.C. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Osteoclast synthesis and secretion and activation of latent transforming growth factor beta. Oursler, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Temporal expression of growth factor genes during myogenesis of satellite cells derived from the biceps femoris and pectoralis major muscles of the chicken. Kocamis, H., McFarland, D.C., Killefer, J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Function of TGF-beta2 in the growth of chicken primordial germ cells and germinal ridge stroma cells during embryonic development. Fujioka, T., Soh, T., Fujihara, N., Hattori, M.A. J. Exp. Zoolog. Part A Comp. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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