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Gene Review

LGALS9  -  lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Ecalectin, Gal-9, Galectin-9, HUAT, LGALS9A, ...
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Disease relevance of LGALS9


High impact information on LGALS9

  • Tim-3 induces immunological tolerance, and engagement of the Tim-3 immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain by galectin-9 is important for appropriate termination of T helper 1-immune responses [4].
  • T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 crystal structure reveals a galectin-9-independent ligand-binding surface [4].
  • We provide data that galectin 9 is hUAT, the first identified human urate transporter. hUAT is a highly selective urate ion channel when inserted in lipid bilayers [5].
  • Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells [6].
  • A pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) inhibited Gal-9-induced apoptosis [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of LGALS9


Biological context of LGALS9


Anatomical context of LGALS9


Associations of LGALS9 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of LGALS9


Regulatory relationships of LGALS9


Other interactions of LGALS9


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LGALS9


  1. TIM-3 in autoimmunity. Anderson, A.C., Anderson, D.E. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Galectin-9 as a prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in breast cancer. Irie, A., Yamauchi, A., Kontani, K., Kihara, M., Liu, D., Shirato, Y., Seki, M., Nishi, N., Nakamura, T., Yokomise, H., Hirashima, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Possible role of galectin-9 in cell aggregation and apoptosis of human melanoma cell lines and its clinical significance. Kageshita, T., Kashio, Y., Yamauchi, A., Seki, M., Abedin, M.J., Nishi, N., Shoji, H., Nakamura, T., Ono, T., Hirashima, M. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 crystal structure reveals a galectin-9-independent ligand-binding surface. Cao, E., Zang, X., Ramagopal, U.A., Mukhopadhaya, A., Fedorov, A., Fedorov, E., Zencheck, W.D., Lary, J.W., Cole, J.L., Deng, H., Xiao, H., Dilorenzo, T.P., Allison, J.P., Nathenson, S.G., Almo, S.C. Immunity (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional reconstitution, membrane targeting, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of a human urate transporter. Lipkowitz, M.S., Leal-Pinto, E., Rappoport, J.Z., Najfeld, V., Abramson, R.G. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dai, S.Y., Nakagawa, R., Itoh, A., Murakami, H., Kashio, Y., Abe, H., Katoh, S., Kontani, K., Kihara, M., Zhang, S.L., Hata, T., Nakamura, T., Yamauchi, A., Hirashima, M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Galectin-9 induces apoptosis through the calcium-calpain-caspase-1 pathway. Kashio, Y., Nakamura, K., Abedin, M.J., Seki, M., Nishi, N., Yoshida, N., Nakamura, T., Hirashima, M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of ecalectin, a novel eosinophil chemoattractant, in nasal polyps. Iino, Y., Miyazawa, T., Kakizaki, K., Saigusa, H., Katano, H., Shiga, J., Kanegasaki, S. Acta Otolaryngol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Human ecalectin, a variant of human galectin-9, is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes. Matsumoto, R., Matsumoto, H., Seki, M., Hata, M., Asano, Y., Kanegasaki, S., Stevens, R.L., Hirashima, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular definition of a novel human galectin which is immunogenic in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Türeci, O., Schmitt, H., Fadle, N., Pfreundschuh, M., Sahin, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9. van de Weyer, P.S., Muehlfeit, M., Klose, C., Bonventre, J.V., Walz, G., Kuehn, E.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Interferon-gamma stimulates the expression of galectin-9 in cultured human endothelial cells. Imaizumi, T., Kumagai, M., Sasaki, N., Kurotaki, H., Mori, F., Seki, M., Nishi, N., Fujimoto, K., Tanji, K., Shibata, T., Tamo, W., Matsumiya, T., Yoshida, H., Cui, X.F., Takanashi, S., Hanada, K., Okumura, K., Yagihashi, S., Wakabayashi, K., Nakamura, T., Hirashima, M., Satoh, K. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Galectin-9: a new endometrial epithelial marker for the mid- and late-secretory and decidual phases in humans. Popovici, R.M., Krause, M.S., Germeyer, A., Strowitzki, T., von Wolff, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. In nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 interacts with galectin 9 in membrane raft elements resistant to simvastatin. Pioche-Durieu, C., Keryer, C., Souquère, S., Bosq, J., Faigle, W., Loew, D., Hirashima, M., Nishi, N., Middeldorp, J., Busson, P. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Biological activities of ecalectin: a novel eosinophil-activating factor. Matsumoto, R., Hirashima, M., Kita, H., Gleich, G.J. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Selective eosinophil adhesion to fibroblast via IFN-gamma-induced galectin-9. Asakura, H., Kashio, Y., Nakamura, K., Seki, M., Dai, S., Shirato, Y., Abedin, M.J., Yoshida, N., Nishi, N., Imaizumi, T., Saita, N., Toyama, Y., Takashima, H., Nakamura, T., Ohkawa, M., Hirashima, M. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulatory mechanisms of galectin-9 and eotaxin-3 synthesis in epidermal keratinocytes: possible involvement of galectin-9 in dermal eosinophilia of Th1-polarized skin inflammation. Igawa, K., Satoh, T., Hirashima, M., Yokozeki, H. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
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