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Gene Review

TPSAB1  -  tryptase alpha/beta 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TPS1, TPS2, TPSB1, Tryptase I, Tryptase alpha-1, ...
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Disease relevance of TPSAB1

  • As reported previously, during systemic anaphylaxis in patients without known mastocytosis, the ratio of B12- to G5-measured tryptase was always < 5 and approached unity (Schwartz L.B., T.R. Bradford, C. Rouse, A.-M. Irani, G. Rasp, J.K. Van der Zwan and P.-W.G. Van der Linden, J. Clin. Immunol. 14:190-204) [1].
  • In this report, most mastocytosis patients with systemic disease have B12-measured tryptase levels that are elevated (> 20 ng/ml) and are at least 10-fold greater than the corresponding G5-measured tryptase level [1].
  • Our findings suggest that the release of tryptase from activated mast cells may provide a signal for abnormal fibrosis in inflammatory disease [2].
  • The alpha form of human tryptase is the predominant type present in blood at baseline in normal subjects and is elevated in those with systemic mastocytosis [1].
  • Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia [3].
  • Angiogenesis, measured as microvessel density, was highly correlated with MC tryptase-positive cell count in pterygium tissues [4].

Psychiatry related information on TPSAB1


High impact information on TPSAB1


Chemical compound and disease context of TPSAB1


Biological context of TPSAB1


Anatomical context of TPSAB1


Associations of TPSAB1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TPSAB1

  • We also show that the majority of the TAME-esterase activity detected in nasal secretions during the allergic response is due to activities consistent with a plasma kallikrein/alpha 2-macroglobulin complex and with mast cell tryptase [24].
  • These findings suggest that tryptase TL2 is important in target site recognition and binding of HIV-1 in co-operation with CD4 receptor in the initial process of HIV-1 infection [25].
  • In the latter case, studies in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts using specific receptor agonists and antagonists or receptor-transfected cell lines reveal a requirement for the activation of a G protein (Gi) negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase to act synergistically with tryptase [26].

Enzymatic interactions of TPSAB1

  • These findings suggest that mast cell beta-tryptase selectively cleaves ASM-derived eotaxin and RANTES and abrogates their chemotactic activities, thus providing an explanation for the eosinophil paucity in asthmatic ASM bundles [27].
  • Tryptase also cleaved the analogous thrombin receptor peptide at the activating site but less efficiently [28].
  • Tryptase hydrolyzes VIP rapidly at several sites (Arg12, Arg14, Lys20, and Lys21) with an overall kcat/Km of 1.5 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and hydrolyzes PHM primarily at a single site (Lys20) with a kcat/Km of 1.9 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 [29].
  • Tryptase from human mast cells has been shown (in vitro) to catalyze the destruction of fibrinogen and high-molecular-weight kininogen as well as the activation of C3a and collagenase [30].

Regulatory relationships of TPSAB1


Other interactions of TPSAB1

  • We studied the effect of beta-tryptase on the immunoreactivities of human ASM cell-derived and recombinant eotaxin and other recombinant chemokines that are known to be produced by human ASM cells [27].
  • RESULTS: High percentages (>70%) of tryptase-positive cells showing CCR3 expression were found in the skin and in the intestinal submucosa, whereas much lower percentages (< or = 20%) were found in the intestinal mucosa and in the lung interstitium [36].
  • Tryptase (TPSB2) was expressed at the highest level among all transcripts and its expression level reached a plateau at 8 weeks [15].
  • RESULTS: Tryptase induced the release of eosinophil peroxidase and beta-hexosaminidase from peripheral blood eosinophils but had no effect on RANTES release [20].
  • We demonstrate that tryptase can activate peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from healthy donors as well as MS patients for the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1beta [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TPSAB1


  1. The alpha form of human tryptase is the predominant type present in blood at baseline in normal subjects and is elevated in those with systemic mastocytosis. Schwartz, L.B., Sakai, K., Bradford, T.R., Ren, S., Zweiman, B., Worobec, A.S., Metcalfe, D.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Mast cell tryptase stimulates the synthesis of type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Cairns, J.A., Walls, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Sperr, W.R., Jordan, J.H., Baghestanian, M., Kiener, H.P., Samorapoompichit, P., Semper, H., Hauswirth, A., Schernthaner, G.H., Chott, A., Natter, S., Kraft, D., Valenta, R., Schwartz, L.B., Geissler, K., Lechner, K., Valent, P. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Neovascularization and mast cells with tryptase activity increase simultaneously in human pterygium. Ribatti, D., Nico, B., Maxia, C., Longo, V., Murtas, D., Mangieri, D., Perra, M.T., De Giorgis, M., Piras, F., Crivellato, E., Sirigu, P. J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Nasal airway changes assessed by acoustic rhinometry and mediator release during immediate and late reactions to allergen challenge. Zweiman, B., Getsy, J., Kalenian, M., Lane, A., Schwartz, L.B., Doty, R., Lanza, D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of interferon-alpha2b treatment on ex vivo differentiation of mast cells from circulating progenitor cells in a patient with systemic mastocytosis. Schernthaner, G.H., Spanblöchl, E., Sperr, W.R., Sillaber, C., Semper, H., Jurecka, W., Hagen, W., Wolff, K., Chott, A., Lechner, K., Valent, P. Ann. Hematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Tryptase levels as an indicator of mast-cell activation in systemic anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. Schwartz, L.B., Metcalfe, D.D., Miller, J.S., Earl, H., Sullivan, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Bivalent inhibition of human beta-tryptase. Schaschke, N., Matschiner, G., Zettl, F., Marquardt, U., Bergner, A., Bode, W., Sommerhoff, C.P., Moroder, L. Chem. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of C3 and CCL2 by C3a in Keratinocytes: A Novel Autocrine Amplification Loop of Inflammatory Skin Reactions. Purwar, R., Wittmann, M., Zwirner, J., Oppermann, M., Kracht, M., Dittrich-Breiholz, O., Gutzmer, R., Werfel, T. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of intestinal inflammation in mouse by activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2. Cenac, N., Coelho, A.M., Nguyen, C., Compton, S., Andrade-Gordon, P., MacNaughton, W.K., Wallace, J.L., Hollenberg, M.D., Bunnett, N.W., Garcia-Villar, R., Bueno, L., Vergnolle, N. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Tryptase and agonists of PAR-2 induce the proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells. Berger, P., Perng, D.W., Thabrew, H., Compton, S.J., Cairns, J.A., McEuen, A.R., Marthan, R., Tunon De Lara, J.M., Walls, A.F. J. Appl. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of human tonsil and skin mast cells by agonists of proteinase activated receptor-2. He, S.H., Xie, H., Fu, Y.L. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Reaction of mast cell proteases tryptase and chymase with protease activated receptors (PARs) on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Schechter, N.M., Brass, L.F., Lavker, R.M., Jensen, P.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of two highly polymorphic human tryptase loci and comparison with a newly discovered monkey tryptase ortholog. Guida, M., Riedy, M., Lee, D., Hall, J. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of tryptase- and chymase-related gene clusters in human mast cells using microarrays. Dahl, C., Saito, H., Kruhøffer, M., Schiøtz, P.O. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential DNA synthesis in response to activation of protease-activated receptors on cultured guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle cells. Corteling, R., Bonneau, O., Ferretti, S., Ferretti, M., Trifilieff, A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Human beta-tryptase is a ring-like tetramer with active sites facing a central pore. Pereira, P.J., Bergner, A., Macedo-Ribeiro, S., Huber, R., Matschiner, G., Fritz, H., Sommerhoff, C.P., Bode, W. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Proliferative action of mast-cell tryptase is mediated by PAR2, COX2, prostaglandins, and PPARgamma : Possible relevance to human fibrotic disorders. Frungieri, M.B., Weidinger, S., Meineke, V., Köhn, F.M., Mayerhofer, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. PAR-2 activation, PGE2, and COX-2 in human asthmatic and nonasthmatic airway smooth muscle cells. Chambers, L.S., Black, J.L., Ge, Q., Carlin, S.M., Au, W.W., Poniris, M., Thompson, J., Johnson, P.R., Burgess, J.K. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Mast cell tryptase activates peripheral blood eosinophils to release granule-associated enzymes. Vliagoftis, H., Lacy, P., Luy, B., Adamko, D., Hollenberg, M., Befus, D., Moqbel, R. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of IL-6 release from human T cells by PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonists. Li, T., He, S. Immunol. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloning and characterization of a second complementary DNA for human tryptase. Miller, J.S., Moxley, G., Schwartz, L.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and characterization of complementary DNA for human tryptase. Miller, J.S., Westin, E.H., Schwartz, L.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Plasma kallikrein during experimentally induced allergic rhinitis: role in kinin formation and contribution to TAME-esterase activity in nasal secretions. Baumgarten, C.R., Nichols, R.C., Naclerio, R.M., Lichtenstein, L.M., Norman, P.S., Proud, D. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel membrane-bound serine esterase in human T4(+)-lymphocytes is a binding protein of envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1. Kido, H., Fukutomi, A., Katunuma, N. Biomed. Biochim. Acta (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Human tryptase as a potent, cell-specific mitogen: role of signaling pathways in synergistic responses. Hartmann, T., Ruoss, S.J., Raymond, W.W., Seuwen, K., Caughey, G.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Mast cell beta-tryptase selectively cleaves eotaxin and RANTES and abrogates their eosinophil chemotactic activities. Pang, L., Nie, M., Corbett, L., Sutcliffe, A., Knox, A.J. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Interactions of mast cell tryptase with thrombin receptors and PAR-2. Molino, M., Barnathan, E.S., Numerof, R., Clark, J., Dreyer, M., Cumashi, A., Hoxie, J.A., Schechter, N., Woolkalis, M., Brass, L.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Degradation of airway neuropeptides by human lung tryptase. Tam, E.K., Caughey, G.H. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Interactions of human mast cell tryptase with biological protease inhibitors. Alter, S.C., Kramps, J.A., Janoff, A., Schwartz, L.B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Human tryptase epsilon (PRSS22), a new member of the chromosome 16p13.3 family of human serine proteases expressed in airway epithelial cells. Wong, G.W., Yasuda, S., Madhusudhan, M.S., Li, L., Yang, Y., Krilis, S.A., Sali, A., Stevens, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Tryptase inhibits motility of human spermatozoa mainly by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Weidinger, S., Mayerhofer, A., Kunz, L., Albrecht, M., Sbornik, M., Wunn, E., Hollweck, R., Ring, J., Kohn, F.M. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Induction of a selective and persistent extravasation of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity by tryptase mouse mast cell protease 6. Huang, C., Friend, D.S., Qiu, W.T., Wong, G.W., Morales, G., Hunt, J., Stevens, R.L. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Possible molecular mechanisms to account for the involvement of tryptase in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Namazi, M.R. Autoimmunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Protease-activated receptor (PAR), a novel family of G protein-coupled seven trans-membrane domain receptors: activation mechanisms and physiological roles. Kawabata, A., Kuroda, R. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 on human mast cells. de Paulis, A., Annunziato, F., Di Gioia, L., Romagnani, S., Carfora, M., Beltrame, C., Marone, G., Romagnani, P. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Tryptase activates peripheral blood mononuclear cells causing the synthesis and release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta: possible relevance to multiple sclerosis. Malamud, V., Vaaknin, A., Abramsky, O., Mor, M., Burgess, L.E., Ben-Yehudah, A., Lorberboum-Galski, H. J. Neuroimmunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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