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Gene Review

STAR  -  steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

Sus scrofa

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High impact information on STAR


Biological context of STAR


Anatomical context of STAR


Associations of STAR with chemical compounds

  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits leydig cell steroidogenesis through a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression [7].
  • Protein kinase A agonist, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP) (1 mM) alone elicited a 3.5-fold increase in StAR message and more than 3.7-fold increase in StAR protein expression by 48 h [5].
  • In summary, P450scc and StAR message expression are coordinately amplified during the pig follicular and luteal phase, whereas LDL receptor message after an initial increase is expressed at constitutively high levels, thus indicating a differential regulation of ovarian sterol-metabolizing genes during the steroidogenic life of the follicle and CL [8].
  • Dibutyryl cAMP caused time-dependent increases in StAR and P450 mRNAs over 24 h (p < 0.001), indicating the importance of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in their gene expression [9].
  • Over 6 h, actinomycin D eliminated constitutive StAR message and reduced that of P450scc by two thirds, indicating briefer persistence of StAR [9].

Regulatory relationships of STAR

  • Previous studies have demonstrated FSH stimulates StAR mRNA accumulation and gene promoter activation in granulosa cells [4].

Other interactions of STAR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STAR

  • LH and insulin (or IGF-I) also augmented steady state StAR transcript levels, as assessed by homologous RT-PCR, and StAR protein concentrations, as evaluated by Western blotting [3].
  • In vitro luteinization of granulosa cells occurred over 96 h in culture, during which P450arom mRNA was present at 1 h after cell isolation but not detectable at 6 h; and P450scc and StAR mRNAs were first detectable at 6 h and 48 h, respectively [6].


  1. Concerted regulation of the porcine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter activity by follicle-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in granulosa cells involves GATA-4 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta. LaVoie, H.A., Singh, D., Hui, Y.Y. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Concerted transcriptional activation of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene by insulin and luteinizing hormone in cultured porcine granulosa-luteal cells: possible convergence of protein kinase a, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sekar, N., Veldhuis, J.D. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Concerted regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory gene expression by luteinizing hormone and insulin (or insulin-like growth factor I) in primary cultures of porcine granulosa-luteal cells. Sekar, N., Lavoie, H.A., Veldhuis, J.D. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Epidermal growth factor-mediated inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone-stimulated StAR gene expression in porcine granulosa cells is associated with reduced histone H3 acetylation. Rusovici, R., Hui, Y.Y., Lavoie, H.A. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of porcine granulosa cell steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) by insulin-like growth factor I: synergism with follicle-stimulating hormone or protein kinase A agonist. Balasubramanian, K., Lavoie, H.A., Garmey, J.C., Stocco, D.M., Veldhuis, J.D. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth factor modulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and luteinization in the pig ovary. Pescador, N., Stocco, D.M., Murphy, B.D. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits leydig cell steroidogenesis through a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. Mauduit, C., Gasnier, F., Rey, C., Chauvin, M.A., Stocco, D.M., Louisot, P., Benahmed, M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Coordinate developmental expression of genes regulating sterol economy and cholesterol side-chain cleavage in the porcine ovary. LaVoie, H.A., Benoit, A.M., Garmey, J.C., Dailey, R.A., Wright, D.J., Veldhuis, J.D. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone and intracellular second messengers regulate steroidogenic acute regulatory protein messenger ribonucleic acid in luteinized porcine granulosa cells. Pescador, N., Houde, A., Stocco, D.M., Murphy, B.D. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. GATA-4 and GATA-6 transcription factors: expression, immunohistochemical localization, and possible function in the porcine ovary. Gillio-Meina, C., Hui, Y.Y., LaVoie, H.A. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Localization and expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase in developing swine follicles: in situ molecular hybridization and immunocytochemical studies. Garmey, J.C., Guthrie, H.D., Garrett, W.M., Stoler, M.H., Veldhuis, J.D. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence variation and evaluation of inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein for reproductive traits in swine. Kim, J.G., Nonneman, D., Vallet, J.L., Wise, T.H., Rohrer, G.A. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence for a functional bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the porcine ovary. Brankin, V., Quinn, R.L., Webb, R., Hunter, M.G. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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