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Gene Review

MCF2  -  MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARHGEF21, DBL, Proto-oncogene DBL, Proto-oncogene MCF-2
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Disease relevance of MCF2

  • The DBL transforming gene was originally identified by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with DNA from a human B-cell lymphoma [1].
  • Five samples were typed as HTLV-I and four were typed as dual infection by the DBL WB kit [2].
  • DBL had two false-positive interpretations, and CBC had none, rgp21 was the most sensitive antigen in both kits for the weakly reactive HTLV-II samples [2].
  • Novel types of bcr-abl transcript with breakpoints in BCR exon 8 found in Philadelphia positive patients with typical chronic myeloid leukemia retain the sequence encoding for the DBL- and CDC24 homology domains but not the pleckstrin homology one [3].
  • In this report, we used ten different recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies in experimental animals [4].

Psychiatry related information on MCF2

  • Recording DBL for use in physician decision-making also significantly impacts this problem and should be considered an important part of the ICU database [5].

High impact information on MCF2

  • Seventy-seven surface-predicted residues of the Sal-1 DBL domain were substituted with alanine and assayed for erythrocyte binding activity by expression of the mutant proteins on the surface of transiently transfected COS cells [6].
  • The functional effect of alanine substitution varied from nil to complete loss of DBL erythrocyte-binding activity [6].
  • Receptor recognition by P. vivax relies on a cysteine-rich domain, the DBL domain or region II, at the N terminus of the extracellular portion of DBP [6].
  • Both Abr and Bcr have a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain similar to those found in other proteins that stimulate GTP hydrolysis by members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins, as well as a region of homology with the guanine nucleotide dissociation-stimulating domain of the DBL oncogene product [7].
  • Thus, the DBL oncoprotein is distinct among known transforming gene products [1].

Biological context of MCF2


Anatomical context of MCF2

  • Analysis of tissue distribution showed that mouse MCF-2 mRNA is expressed in brain, kidney, intestine, and testis [12].
  • DBL/MCF2 peptides that are bound to HLA-A*0201 were identified and recognized by T lymphocytes [13].
  • Analyses of panels of human X rodent somatic cell hybrids demonstrated that the DBL proto-oncogene located on the X chromosome (just proximal or distal to bands q26-27.2) underwent recombination at its 5' and 3' ends with sequences derived from chromosomes 3 (p13q-ter) and 16 (p13-q22), respectively [8].
  • By heterologous expression of domains in COS-7 cells, we found that both var1CSA and var2CSA PfEMP1 variants bound IgM, and in both cases the binding region was a DBL epsilon domain occurring proximal to the membrane [14].

Associations of MCF2 with chemical compounds

  • In addition, precipitation of blood group A+H substance by DBL is slightly better inhibited by a blood group A trisaccharide (GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal) containing pentasaccharide, and about 40 times better by the Forssman disaccharide (GalNAc(alpha1-3)GalNAc) than by GalNAc [15].
  • The structures of DBL in complex with adenine and of the dimeric stem and leaf lectin (DB58) from the same plant provide the first structural data on these binding sites [15].
  • The Life-care prefilled 30-mL syringe (Abbott), the DBL 30-mL syringe no [16].
  • The reactivity of HSM-Tn with other lectins (Ricinus communis, RCA1; Dolichol biflorus, DBL; Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea, PNA, and Triticum vulgaris, WGA) was weak or negligible [17].

Other interactions of MCF2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MCF2

  • DBL was localized to chromosome Xq27-q28 by in situ hybridization [8].
  • To further investigate the relative importance of conserved and polymorphic residues within this DBL central region, we identified residues critical for receptor recognition by site-directed mutagenesis [6].
  • We evaluated two commercial human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Western blot (WB; immunoblot) kits, Cambridge Biotech Corp. (CBC) and Diagnostic Biotechnology Ltd. (DBL) [2].
  • 709700 (DBL Inc.) were tested in the Stratofuse PCA infusion pump (Baxter) [16].
  • This paper reports comparative results in detection of HCV antibodies by using GLD HCV-SPOT, ELISA and GLD/DBL HCV BLOT [19].


  1. The predicted DBL oncogene product defines a distinct class of transforming proteins. Eva, A., Vecchio, G., Rao, C.D., Tronick, S.R., Aaronson, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of two commercial human T-cell lymphotropic virus western blot (immunoblot) kits with problem specimens. Gallo, D., Diggs, J.L., Hanson, C.V. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Novel types of bcr-abl transcript with breakpoints in BCR exon 8 found in Philadelphia positive patients with typical chronic myeloid leukemia retain the sequence encoding for the DBL- and CDC24 homology domains but not the pleckstrin homology one. Martinelli, G., Amabile, M., Giannini, B., Terragna, C., Ottaviani, E., Soverini, S., Saglio, G., Rosti, G., Baccarani, M. Haematologica (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Recombinant Duffy binding-like-alpha domains of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 elicit antibodies in rats that recognise conserved epitopes. Oguariri, R.M., Mattei, D., Tena-Tomás, C., Uhlemann, A.C., Kremsner, P.G., Kun, J.F. Parasitol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effective measures for reducing blood loss from diagnostic laboratory tests in intensive care unit patients. Foulke, G.E., Harlow, D.J. Crit. Care Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Conserved residues in the Plasmodium vivax Duffy-binding protein ligand domain are critical for erythrocyte receptor recognition. VanBuskirk, K.M., Sevova, E., Adams, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Abr and Bcr are multifunctional regulators of the Rho GTP-binding protein family. Chuang, T.H., Xu, X., Kaartinen, V., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J., Bokoch, G.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromosomal localization of DBL oncogene sequences. Tronick, S.R., McBride, O.W., Popescu, N.C., Eva, A. Genomics (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene mapping studies confirm the homology between the platypus X and echidna X1 chromosomes and identify a conserved ancestral monotreme X chromosome. Watson, J.M., Riggs, A., Graves, J.A. Chromosoma (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization of the mouse Mcf-2 (Dbl) protooncogene within a conserved linkage group on the mouse X chromosome. Grant, S.G., Mattei, M.G., Galland, F., Stephenson, D.A., Keitz, B.T., Birnbaum, D., Chapman, V.M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Localization of the 5' end of the MCF2 oncogene to human chromosome 15q15----q23. Galland, F., Stefanova, M., Lafage, M., Birnbaum, D. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of novel splicing variants of the mouse MCF-2 (DBL) proto-oncogene. Komai, K., Mukae-Sakairi, N., Kitagawa, M., Shiozawa, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of cancer-testis genes expressed by melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma using bioinformatics. Segal, N.H., Blachere, N.E., Guevara-Patiño, J.A., Gallardo, H.F., Shiu, H.Y., Viale, A., Antonescu, C.R., Wolchok, J.D., Houghton, A.N. Cancer Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum var1CSA and var2CSA domains that bind IgM natural antibodies. Semblat, J.P., Raza, A., Kyes, S.A., Rowe, J.A. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Carbohydrate binding, quaternary structure and a novel hydrophobic binding site in two legume lectin oligomers from Dolichos biflorus. Hamelryck, T.W., Loris, R., Bouckaert, J., Dao-Thi, M.H., Strecker, G., Imberty, A., Fernandez, E., Wyns, L., Etzler, M.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Fluid delivery from infusion-pump syringes. Carl, J.L., Erstad, B.L., Murphy, J.E., Slack, M.K. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Interaction of hamster submaxillary sialyl-Tn and Tn glycoproteins with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins. Wu, A.M., Shen, F., Herp, A., Wu, J.H. Mol. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Alternative splicing variants of the human DBL (MCF-2) proto-oncogene. Komai, K., Okayama, R., Kitagawa, M., Yagi, H., Chihara, K., Shiozawa, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparative results in detection of HCV antibodies by using a rapid HCV test, ELISA and immunoblot. Poovorawan, Y., Theamboonlers, A., Chumdermpadetsuk, S., Thong, C.P. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1994) [Pubmed]
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