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Gene Review

GLUT-1  -  glucose transporter type 1

Ovis aries

Synonyms: GLUT1, SLC2A1
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Disease relevance of GLUT-1

  • Thus maternal hyperglycemia causes a time-dependent decline in the entire placental glucose transporter pool (GLUT-1 and GLUT-3) [1].
  • In contrast, selective hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia led to an immediate and persistent twofold increase in liver GLUT-1, which lasted from 1 until 24 h with a concomitant decline in myocardial tissue GLUT-4 amounts, reaching statistical significance at 24 h [2].
  • We immunolocalized the GLUT-3 glucose transporter isoform versus GLUT-1 in the late-gestation epitheliochorial ovine placenta, and we examined the effect of chronic maternal hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia on placental GLUT-3 concentrations [1].
  • We conclude that abnormal glucose concentrations alter rodent and ovine placental GLUT-1 levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; hypoxia may upregulate this effect [3].
  • There was no effect of previous nutrient restriction on placental mass, fetal weight or GLUT-1 abundance at term, when ewes were well fed in the second half of gestation [4].

High impact information on GLUT-1


Chemical compound and disease context of GLUT-1


Biological context of GLUT-1

  • GLUT1 and GLUT3 immunoreactivity was examined in fetal sheep brain sections of the frontal neocortex, caudate putamen and hippocampus at 0.73 gestation after fetal exposure to betamethasone by direct fetal intravenous infusion or maternal intramuscular injections at the clinically relevant dosage [9].
  • These cellular adaptations in GLUT-1 (and GLUT-3) are geared toward protecting the conceptus from perturbations in substrate availability, and the adaptations in GLUT-4 are geared toward development of fetal insulin resistance [10].
  • The changes in placental GLUT-1 concentrations may contribute toward the process of altered maternoplacentofetal transport of glucose, thereby regulating placental and fetal growth [3].
  • Increasing maternal feed intake to meet calculated energy requirements in previously nutrient restricted ewes during the second half of gestation, increases placental mass and fetal weight, and the abundance of GLUT-1, an adaptation not observed if maternal food intake is increased above requirements [4].
  • Nutritional treatment had no effect on the concentration of GLUT1 or GLUT4 in either tissue, and did not increase ovulation rate, despite increased concentrations of glucose and insulin [11].

Anatomical context of GLUT-1


Associations of GLUT-1 with chemical compounds

  • Betamethasone did not alter GLUT1 and GLUT3 immunoreactivity in any of the brain regions investigated, independently of the dose and route of administration [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLUT-1


  1. Time-dependent physiological regulation of ovine placental GLUT-3 glucose transporter protein. Das, U.G., He, J., Ehrhardt, R.A., Hay, W.W., Devaskar, S.U. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Glucose transporter protein responses to selective hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia in fetal sheep. Anderson, M.S., Flowers-Ziegler, J., Das, U.G., Hay, W.W., Devaskar, S.U. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Time-dependent physiological regulation of rodent and ovine placental glucose transporter (GLUT-1) protein. Das, U.G., Sadiq, H.F., Soares, M.J., Hay, W.W., Devaskar, S.U. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Maternal nutritional manipulation of placental growth and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) abundance in sheep. Dandrea, J., Wilson, V., Gopalakrishnan, G., Heasman, L., Budge, H., Stephenson, T., Symonds, M.E. Reproduction (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Nonopsonic phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires facilitated transport of D-glucose by macrophages. Barghouthi, S., Everett, K.D., Speert, D.P. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Ovine feto-placental metabolism. Ward, J.W., Wooding, F.B., Fowden, A.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. In vitro culture of murine peritoneal and alveolar macrophages modulates phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and glucose transport. Everett, K.D., Barghouthi, S., Speert, D.P. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of cortisol on cardiac myocytes and on expression of cardiac genes in fetal sheep. Lumbers, E.R., Boyce, A.C., Joulianos, G., Kumarasamy, V., Barner, E., Segar, J.L., Burrell, J.H. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Glucose transporter proteins GLUT1 and GLUT3 like immunoreactivities in the fetal sheep brain are not reduced by maternal betamethasone treatment. Antonow-Schlorke, I., Ebert, M., Müller, T., Schubert, H., Gschanes, A., Witte, O.W., Nathanielsz, P.W., Schwab, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Time-dependent and tissue-specific effects of circulating glucose on fetal ovine glucose transporters. Das, U.G., Schroeder, R.E., Hay, W.W., Devaskar, S.U. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of nutritional supplementation on quantities of glucose transporters 1 and 4 in sheep granulosa and theca cells. Williams, S.A., Blache, D., Martin, G.B., Foot, R., Blackberry, M.A., Scaramuzzi, R.J. Reproduction (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of oxidative stress in the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Malhotra, S.P., Reddy, V.M., Thelitz, S., He, Y.P., McMullan, D.M., Hanley, F.L., Riemer, R.K. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
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