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Gene Review

GIP  -  gastric inhibitory polypeptide

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of LOC511073


High impact information on LOC511073

  • Fecal consistency was significantly higher during wk 1 of life, and gastrin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide increased only on d 1 and/or 2 of life in calves already fed colostrum on d 1, expressing improved functioning of the gastrointestinal tract [2].
  • Upon proteolytic digestion of GIP with the staphylococcal V8 protease and with enterokinase, two fragments are formed in each case, corresponding to GIP1-3, GIP4-42, and GIP1-16, GIP17-42, respectively [1].
  • The sequence is: Tyr-Ala-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Ile-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Ile-Ala-Met-Asp-Lys-Ile-Arg- Gln-Gln - Asp-Phe-Val-Asn-Trp-Leu-Leu-Ala-Gln-Lys-Gly-Lys-Lys-Ser-Asp-Trp-Ile-His- Asn-Ile - Thr-Gln, which differs from that of the previously characterized porcine GIP by having isoleucine instead of lysine at position 37 [1].
  • By contrast, intraduodenal infusion of 60 mM-HCl caused complete inhibition of gastric emptying, reduction of acid secretion, and an immediate increase in plasma somatostatin from 121.3 +/- 9.4 (S.E.M.) to 286.3 +/- 16.3 pg/ml (P less 0.01) but levels of GIP, insulin, glucagon and glucose were unaltered [3].
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations, and iron intake were low and comparable in both groups and therefore were etiologically not involved in the development of insulin resistance [4].

Biological context of LOC511073

  • Plasma concentration and flux rate of palmitate was increased by GIP only at the higher infusion level suggesting lipolysis and possibly fatty acid re-esterification was stimulated at high concentration [5].
  • The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 nM) of GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in bovine adipose tissue in vitro were investigated after 4 and 24 h of incubation [5].
  • By 19 d postpartum, concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and CCK increased by 2.3-, 1.8-, and 2.8-fold, respectively, compared with values at 11 d before calving [6].
  • Effects of transition from late gestation to early lactation on plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1), and cholecystokinin (CCK) have not been reported in cattle [6].

Anatomical context of LOC511073


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC511073

  • A combination of ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used in the isolation which resulted in homogeneous bovine GIP [1].
  • A sensitive, precise and specific radioimmunoassay method for measuring plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is described [9].
  • Cells containing gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon immunoreactivity were localized in the alimentary tract of the adult sheep, young lamb, calf and goat kid by indirect immunocytochemistry, using antisera raised to the porcine peptides [8].


  1. A novel form of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) isolated from bovine intestine using a radioreceptor assay. Fragmentation with staphylococcal protease results in GIP1-3 and GIP4-42, fragmentation with enterokinase in GIP1-16 and GIP17-42. Carlquist, M., Maletti, M., Jörnvall, H., Mutt, V. Eur. J. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Delaying colostrum intake by one day has important effects on metabolic traits and on gastrointestinal and metabolic hormones in neonatal calves. Hadorn, U., Hammon, H., Bruckmaier, R.M., Blum, J.W. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Correlation of endogenous somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon and insulin with gastric function in the conscious calf. Bell, F.R., Webber, D.E., Wass, J.A., Rees, L.H., Evans, J., Morgan, L.M., Marks, V., Lewis, J. J. Endocrinol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, glucosuria, and galactosuria in intensively milk-fed calves: dependency on age and effects of high lactose intake. Hugi, D., Bruckmaier, R.M., Blum, J.W. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on bovine fat metabolism. Dawson, J.M., Greathead, H.M., Sessions, V.A., Tye, F.M., Buttery, P.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasma concentrations of gut peptides in dairy cattle increase after calving. Relling, A.E., Reynolds, C.K. J. Dairy Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas by porcine GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), bovine GIP, and bovine GIP(1-39). Sandberg, E., Ahrén, B., Tendler, D., Carlquist, M., Efendić, S. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunocytochemical localization of gastric inhibitory peptide and glucagon in the alimentary tract of ruminants. Bunnett, N.W., Harrison, F.A. Quarterly journal of experimental physiology (Cambridge, England) (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Radioimmunoassay of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), release of GIP after a test meal and duodenal infusion of bile, and immunoreactive plasma GIP components in man. Burhol, P.G., Jorde, R., Waldum, H.L. Digestion (1980) [Pubmed]
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