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Gene Review

SST  -  somatostatin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of SST


Psychiatry related information on SST

  • 4. The Na2CO3 infusate, like HCl, inhibited gastric motor activity and digesta emptying, but the concentration of circulating somatostatin was only slightly elevated above pre-infusion levels [4].

High impact information on SST


Biological context of SST


Anatomical context of SST

  • Measurement of testicular ultrasonic echotexture and SST after GnRH treatment augmented measurement of testicular size for predicting the number and percentage of live spermatozoa [15].
  • Treatment with GnRH (100 micrograms, i.m.) increased (P < 0.0001) serum LH and testosterone concentrations and increased (P < 0.0001) SST (range 0.6 to 1.1 degrees C; P < 0.05) at the top and bottom of the scrotum [15].
  • Although the luminal and abluminal sides of brain endothelial cells are both capable of taking up large neutral amino acids, only uptake from the abluminal side appears to be inhibited by somatostatin [16].
  • 1. The effect of somatostatin on the responses to moderate insulin hypoglycaemia and to 2-deoxyglucose has been examined in 2--3 week-old calves with cut splanchnic nerves [17].
  • The [Ca2+]i oscillations seen in a proportion of the somatotrophs were modulated in frequency by GHRH and SS, and are probably generated by influx of Ca2+ through channels in the cell membrane [14].

Associations of SST with chemical compounds

  • Our results indicated that blood for NEFA testing should be collected into EDTA or nonanticoagulant tubes (but not SST), separated promptly from cells, and maintained at 4 degrees C until analysis [18].
  • Blood was collected from dairy cows into EDTA, heparin, nonanticoagulant tubes, and SST, and analyzed immediately to obtain baseline NEFA and BHBA concentrations [18].
  • This peptide was purified by chromatography on an affinity column made with anti-somatostatin antiserum, a reverse-phase C-18 HPLC column, and three sequential applications on a reverse-phase phenyl HPLC column [19].
  • The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin induced a modest but statistically significant release of histamine from both skin and lung mast cells, whilst substance P only induced histamine secretion from skin mast cells [20].
  • Mechanism of action of somatostatin: inhibition of ionophore A23187-induced release of growth hormone from dispersed bovine pituitary cells [21].

Regulatory relationships of SST

  • Therefore, we wanted to determine if GHRP-6 stimulated secretion of GHRH or inhibited secretion of somatostatin, or both [22].
  • The studies indicate that somatostatin inhibits PTH secretion by an action distal to cAMP generation [23].

Other interactions of SST

  • GRP, but not bombesin, produced a small but significant rise in the mean plasma somatostatin concentration [24].
  • 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were most numerous, somatostatin-, gastrin-, motilin- and BPP-immunoreactive cells were moderately numerous, whereas CCK-immunoreactive cells were rare [25].
  • Approximately 75 pmol was collected from eight pooled glands. beta-Endorphin is an addition to the list of peptide hormones (e.g., methionine-enkephalin, adrenocorticotropin, arginine-vasopressin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, beta-lipotropin and somatostatin) previously discovered in IGC by this laboratory [26].
  • Using immunostained serial sections and specific antibodies against bovine PrP(c), insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, chromogranin A and chromogranin B we found that PrP(c) is highly expressed in all endocrine cells of fetal and adult pancreatic islets with a particular strong expression in A-cells [27].
  • Antisera directed against somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor stained perikarya, nerve fibers and terminals in the anuran brain with a distribution that was different from antisera directed against proenkephalin-derived peptides [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SST


  1. Mechanism of thyroid hormone inhibition of thyrotropin-releasing hormone action. Hinkle, P.M., Perrone, M.H., Schonbrunn, A. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Age-related changes of the somatotropic axis in cloned Holstein calves. Govoni, K.E., Tian, X.C., Kazmer, G.W., Taneja, M., Enright, B.P., Rivard, A.L., Yang, X., Zinn, S.A. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. A retrospective study of pancreatic tumors in slaughter cattle. Kelley, L.C., Harmon, B.G., McCaskey, P.C. Vet. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Nutrient sensitivity of gastric emptying of digesta in the preruminant calf. Sissons, J.W., Bell, F.R., Girard, C.L., Wass, J.A. Br. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of motilin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide on the migrating myoelectric complex in pig and dog. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Rayner, V., Ruckebusch, Y. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Bovine leukemia virus trans-activator p38tax activates heterologous promoters with a common sequence known as a cAMP-responsive element or the binding site of a cellular transcription factor ATF. Katoh, I., Yoshinaka, Y., Ikawa, Y. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. A G protein gamma subunit-specific peptide inhibits muscarinic receptor signaling. Azpiazu, I., Cruzblanca, H., Li, P., Linder, M., Zhuo, M., Gautam, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Purification and characteristics of the candidate prohormone processing proteases PC2 and PC1/3 from bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin granules. Azaryan, A.V., Krieger, T.J., Hook, V.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel in vitro interaction of insulin with rabbit skeletal muscle protein phosphatases. Speth, M., Lee, E.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure and evolution of somatostatin genes. Su, C.J., White, J.W., Li, W.H., Luo, C.C., Frazier, M.L., Saunders, G.F., Chan, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Association analysis of adiponectin and somatostatin polymorphisms on BTA1 with growth and carcass traits in Angus cattle. Morsci, N.S., Schnabel, R.D., Taylor, J.F. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition by somatostatin of bovine growth hormone secretion following sodium channel activation. Bicknell, R.J., Schofield, J.G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Rapid sequestration and degradation of somatostatin analogues by isolated brain microvessels. Pardridge, W.M., Eisenberg, J., Yamada, T. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium homeostasis in bovine somatotrophs: calcium oscillations and calcium regulation by growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. Rawlings, S.R., Hoyland, J., Mason, W.T. Cell Calcium (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Endocrine and thermal responses to GnRH treatment and prediction of sperm output and viability in holstein-Friesian breeding bulls. Gábor, G., Sasser, R.G., Kastelic, J.P., Coulter, G.H., Everson, D.O., Falkay, G., Mézes, M., Bozó, S., Cook, R.B., Csik, J.V., Bárány, I., Szász, F. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibitory effect of somatostatin on neutral amino acid transport in isolated brain microvessels. Cardelli, P., Fiori, A., Corleto, V.D., Savi, M.R., Granata, F., Ceci, F., Ferraguti, G., Potenza, R.L., Delle Fave, G., Jensen, R.T., Strom, R. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of somatostatin on pancreatic endocrine responses mediated via the parasympathetic innervation in the conscious calf. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Järhult, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of anticoagulant and storage conditions on bovine nonesterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in blood. Stokol, T., Nydam, D.V. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Structure of somatostatin isolated from bovine retina. Marshak, D.W., Reeve, J.R., Shively, J.E., Hawke, D., Takami, M.S., Yamada, T. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural and secretory characteristics of bovine lung and skin mast cells: evidence for the existence of heterogeneity. Hunt, T.C., Campbell, A.M., Robinson, C., Holgate, S.T. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanism of action of somatostatin: inhibition of ionophore A23187-induced release of growth hormone from dispersed bovine pituitary cells. Bicknell, R.J., Schofield, J.G. FEBS Lett. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. GH-releasing peptide-6 overcomes refractoriness of somatotropes to GHRH after feeding. McMahon, C.D., Chapin, L.T., Radcliff, R.P., Lookingland, K.J., Tucker, H.A. J. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Mode of action of somatostatin in inhibiting parathyroid hormone secretion. Kukreja, S.C., Hargis, G.K., Bowser, E.N., Williams, G.A. Horm. Metab. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Endocrine responses to exogenous bombesin and gastrin releasing peptide in conscious calves. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Ghatei, M.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. An immunohistochemical survey of endocrine cells and nerves in the proximal small intestine of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Yamada, J., Krause, W.J. Cell Tissue Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Beta-endorphin in pituitary intraglandular colloid of intermediate lobe origin. Boyd, W.H., Jichici, D., Agro, A., Rowell, G., Gibbs, B.F. Peptides (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. The normal cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) is strongly expressed in bovine endocrine pancreas. Amselgruber, W.M., Büttner, M., Schlegel, T., Schweiger, M., Pfaff, E. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunocytochemical analysis of proenkephalin-derived peptides in the amphibian hypothalamus and optic tectum. Merchenthaler, I., Maderdrut, J.L., Lázár, G., Gulyás, J., Petrusz, P. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the retina. Yamada, T., Marshak, D., Basinger, S., Walsh, J., Morley, J., Stell, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons within the porcine and bovine hypothalamus. Leshin, L.S., Barb, C.R., Kiser, T.E., Rampacek, G.B., Kraeling, R.R. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Breakdown of somatostatin and substance P by cathepsin D purified from calf brain by affinity chromatography. Benuck, M., Grynbaum, A., Marks, N. Brain Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  32. Quantification and visualization of the transport of octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, across monolayers of cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Jaehde, U., Masereeuw, R., De Boer, A.G., Fricker, G., Nagelkerke, J.F., Vonderscher, J., Breimer, D.D. Pharm. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
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