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Gene Review

GAST  -  gastrin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of GAS

  • Instillation of liver extract into the HP stimulated acid secretion from the HP but caused no change in serum gastrin and no change in acid secretion from the gastric fistula [1].
  • Group-2 calves had increased plasma pepsinogen and gastrin values and decreased weight gains, and total serum protein and albumin concentrations from the 2nd week of infection onward [2].
  • The rise in blood gastrin levels may also be partly responsible for the marked hyperplasia of the fundic mucosa seen in abomasal infections [3].
  • Differences in the course of gastrin and pepsinogen late in the grazing season can be correlated with larval inhibition and the possibility of ostertagiasis Type II [4].
  • During clinical outbreaks mean gastrin levels frequently reached 1,000 pg/ml with a severe weight loss and a mean pepsinogen level of 5,000 mU tyr [5].

High impact information on GAS

  • We report here that dietary components coming in contact only with oxyntic gland mucosa stimulate near maximal acid secretion through a local, H-sensitive mechanism that does not involve gastrin [1].
  • Gastrin concentration in the medium decreased with time in culture until no hormone was detected between 2 and 6 weeks, possibly because of endocrine cell dedifferentiation and an increased proportion of fibroblasts in the population [6].
  • Gastrin induced translocation of PKCalpha from cholangiocyte cytoskeleton to membrane [7].
  • Gastrin inhibits cholangiocyte growth in bile duct-ligated rats by interaction with cholecystokinin-B/Gastrin receptors via D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-, Ca(2+)-, and protein kinase C alpha-dependent mechanisms [7].
  • We concluded that gastrin inhibits cholangiocyte growth in BDL rats by interacting with CCK-B/gastrin receptors through a signal transduction pathway involving IP(3), Ca(2+), and PKCalpha [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of GAS


Biological context of GAS

  • In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library [9].
  • Bovine and feline gastrin cDNA sequences and the amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies among mammalian species [10].
  • 6. The results indicate that the chemical stimulation of the oxyntic gland area by peptic digests is capable of inducing acid secretion by a local, gastrin-independent, partially neural reflex mechanism; sensitive to pH, pressure and secretin [11].
  • 3. This dose of neurotensin produced no significant change in mean heart rate, aortic blood pressure, plasma gastrin or glucose concentration [12].
  • Neither peptide produced a discernible change in mean heart rate or aortic blood pressure, or in the mean arterial plasma concentrations of enteroglucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin or cholecystokinin (CCK) [13].

Anatomical context of GAS

  • We studied the role of gastrin in regulating cholangiocyte proliferation induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) [7].
  • 2. Liver extract meal kept in the stomach at pH 5.5 (by intragastric titration) produced a marked increase in gastric acid and pancreatic protein secretion accompanied by a rise in serum gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide levels [14].
  • 3. An 11-fold increase in gastrin mRNA expression was recorded in the parasitized animals which was accompanied by a 23.8% reduction in pyloric mucosal gastrin content and an apparent drop of 24.7% in the number of gastrin-producing G cells detected [15].
  • Differential expression of A- and B-subtypes of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in the developing calf pancreas [16].
  • 3. In dogs release of pancreatic glucagon in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation was not suppressed by atropine (0.2 mg/kg) or somatostatin, at a dose that caused a steady fall in the concentration of gastrin in the circulating plasma (0.5 microgram-kg-1 min-1) [17].

Associations of GAS with chemical compounds

  • The cleavage following a pair of lysine residues yields gastrin 17 [10].
  • We found that pairs of arginine residues flanking gastrin 34, the typical processing site sequence of all other preprogastrins and many peptide hormones, were arginines in the bovine preprogastrin, but the first basic amino acid pair had changed to Arg-Trp (57-58 residues) instead of Arg-Arg in the feline preprogastrin [10].
  • The gastrin mRNA of each animal encodes a preprogastrin of 104 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, a prosegment of 37 amino acids, and a gastrin 34 sequence, followed by a glycine (the amide donor) [10].
  • Gastrin effects on cholangiocyte functions were blocked by L-365,260, BAPTA/AM, H7, and staurosporin but not by L-364,718 [7].
  • To evaluate if gastrin effects on cholangiocyte proliferation are mediated by the isoform PKCalpha, we evaluated (1) for the presence of PKCalpha in cholangiocytes and (2) the effect of gastrin on the PKCalpha protein expression in a triton-soluble (containing cytoplasm + membrane) and a triton-insoluble (containing cytoskeleton) fraction [7].

Other interactions of GAS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAS


  1. Chemicals bathing the oxyntic gland area stimulate acid secretion in dog. Debas, H.T., Grossman, M.I. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Pathophysiologic effects of Ostertagia ostertagi in calves and their prevention by strategic anthelmintic treatments. Xiao, L., Gibbs, H.C., Yang, C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathophysiology of infection with Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle. Fox, M.T. Vet. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of pepsinogen, gastrin and antibody response in diagnosing ostertagiasis. Berghen, P., Hilderson, H., Vercruysse, J., Dorny, P. Vet. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Diagnostic value of gastrin for clinical bovine ostertagiosis. Hilderson, H., Vercruysse, J., Berghen, P., Dorny, P., McKellar, Q.A. Zentralblatt Veterinarmedizin Reihe B (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Culture of Zollinger-Ellison tumor cells. Lichtenberger, L.M., Lechago, J., Dockray, G.J., Passaro, E. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Gastrin inhibits cholangiocyte growth in bile duct-ligated rats by interaction with cholecystokinin-B/Gastrin receptors via D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-, Ca(2+)-, and protein kinase C alpha-dependent mechanisms. Glaser, S., Benedetti, A., Marucci, L., Alvaro, D., Baiocchi, L., Kanno, N., Caligiuri, A., Phinizy, J.L., Chowdury, U., Papa, E., LeSage, G., Alpini, G. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of a beta 2-sympathomimetic on gastrin release, acid secretion, and blood glucose during basal conditions and in response to insulin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and feeding in the dog. Gottrup, F., Løvgreen, N.A., Andersen, D. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene. Lund, T., Olsen, J., Rehfeld, J.F. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Bovine and feline gastrin cDNA sequences and the amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies among mammalian species. Kim, S.J., Uhm, K.N., Kang, Y.K., Yoo, O.J. DNA Seq. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Chemical stimulatory mechanism in gastric secretion. Cieszkowski, M., Konturek, S.J., Obtulowicz, W., Tasler, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Pancreatic endocrine responses to exogenous neurotensin in the conscious calf. Blackburn, A.M., Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Endocrine responses to exogenous bombesin and gastrin releasing peptide in conscious calves. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Ghatei, M.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide and its C-terminal hexapeptide on meal and secretin induced pancreatic secretion in dogs. Chance, R.E., Cieszkowski, M., Jaworek, J., Konturek, S.J., Swierczek, J., Tasler, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of Ostertagia ostertagi on gastrin gene expression and gastrin-related responses in the calf. Purewal, A., Fox, M.T., Shivalkar, P., Carroll, A.P., Uche, U.E., Vaillant, C., Watkinson, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential expression of A- and B-subtypes of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in the developing calf pancreas. Le Meuth, V., Philouze-Rome, V., Le Huerou-Luron, I., Formal, M., Vaysse, N., Gespach, C., Guilloteau, P., Fourmy, D. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Certain pharmacological characteristics of the release of pancreatic glucagon in response to stimulation of the splanchnic nerves. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the control of pancreatic endocrine responses to milk ingestion in the calf. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Hardy, R.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of gastrointestinal hormones on isolated bovine parathyroid cells. Windeck, R., Brown, E.M., Gardner, D.G., Aurbach, G.D. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Delaying colostrum intake by one day has important effects on metabolic traits and on gastrointestinal and metabolic hormones in neonatal calves. Hadorn, U., Hammon, H., Bruckmaier, R.M., Blum, J.W. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. An immunohistochemical survey of endocrine cells and nerves in the proximal small intestine of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Yamada, J., Krause, W.J. Cell Tissue Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of antrectomy and vagisecretion on gastric acid output and gastrin secretion. Ashby, D.B., Himal, H.S. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Milking and feeding-induced release of the gastrointestinal hormones gastrin and somatostatin in dairy cows. Svennersten, K., Nelson, L., Arvinder, K., Uvnäs-Moberg, K. J. Dairy Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Organ culture studies of rat antrum: evidence for an antral inhibitor of gastrin release. Lichtenberger, L.M., Shorey, J.M., Trier, J.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Gastrin and gastrin-related responses to infection with Ostertagia ostertagi in the calf. Fox, M.T., Carroll, A.P., Hughes, S.A., Uche, U.E., Jacobs, D.E., Vaillant, C. Res. Vet. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Further studies on the response to transplanted adult Ostertagia ostertagi in calves. McKellar, Q., Duncan, J.L., Armour, J., Lindsay, F.E., McWilliam, P. Res. Vet. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
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