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Gene Review

PDE6D  -  phosphodiesterase 6D, cGMP-specific, rod,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GMP-PDE delta, JBTS22, PDED, Protein p17, Retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta
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Disease relevance of PDE6D

  • The characterization of the canine PDE6D gene and its mapping provide important information for testing causal association of the gene with canine retinal degenerations, in particular rod-cone dysplasia 2 (rcd2) in collie dogs [1].
  • The human gene (PDE6D) encoding a new subunit (delta) has been characterized and mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2 (HSA2q35-q36) where a new autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) locus (RP26) has been localized [1].
  • The property of p17 to increase production of proinflammatory cytokines could be a mechanism exploited by the virus to create a more suitable environment for HIV-1 infection and replication [2].
  • We have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin alpha 1 [which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus] effectively neutralized the AIDS virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells [3].
  • From these studies, we conclude that the intracellular expression of a single-chain Ab to p17 inhibits HIV replication; in addition, the degree of inhibition is related to the intracellular targeting site [4].

High impact information on PDE6D

  • GraB- induced caspase 3 processing to p17 in S-100 cytosol was increased only threefold in the presence of mitochondria, suggesting that another caspase(s) participates in the mitochondrial amplification of GraB apoptosis [5].
  • Because HIV-1 infection and replication is related to cell activation and differentiation status, in the present study, we investigated the role played by p17 during the process of T cell stimulation [2].
  • Upon induction of apoptosis, the large (p17) and small (p12) subunits, comprising active caspase-3, are generated via proteolytic processing of a latent proenzyme dimer [6].
  • For example, a preponderance of natural sequence variants of the human immunodeficiency virus p17 Gag-derived peptide SLYNTVATL (SL9) are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which implies that interactions with SL9 variants are degenerate both with respect to the class I MHC molecule and with respect to TCR [7].
  • Furthermore, the caspase-3 p17 subunit, which has previously been shown to be S-nitrosylated and thereby inhibited, was denitrosylated by TNFalpha treatment suggesting that S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation are important regulatory mechanisms in endothelial cells contributing to the integrity of the endothelial cell monolayer [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of PDE6D

  • METHODS: HIV-1 genotypes of 59 specimens were screened based on gag (p17) and env (C2/V3) regions [9].
  • The search for mutations in NL4.3/SPL2923 in viral genes other than env revealed several mutations in the gene encoding the HIV p17 matrix protein (MA) and one mutation in the gene encoding the p24 capsid protein (CA) [10].

Biological context of PDE6D


Anatomical context of PDE6D

  • A novel subunit, termed PDE delta (HGMW-approved symbol, PDE6D; MW 17 kDa), is able to detach PDE partially from bovine rod outer segment membranes under physiological conditions [11].
  • Our data show that p17 exerts its biological activity after binding to a specific cellular receptor expressed on activated T lymphocytes [2].
  • HIV p17 enhances lymphocyte proliferation and HIV-1 replication after binding to a human serum factor [14].
  • BACKGROUND: Previously we reported that human CD4(+) T cell lines stably expressing anti-HIV-1 gag p17 scFv/Ckappa in the cytosol or nucleus were resistant to HIV-1 challenge [15].
  • METHODS: Anti-HIV-1 gag p17 scFv/Ckappa gene that is targeted into cytoplasm was inserted into a MMLV vector and transfected into packaging cell line PT67 [15].

Associations of PDE6D with chemical compounds

  • To demonstrate that the cysteine residue Cys-163 of caspase-3 is S-nitrosated, cells were transfected with the Myc-tagged p17 subunit of caspase-3 [13].
  • Genetic subtyping based on gag (p17) and env (C2/V3) sequences revealed that CRF01_AE is a principal strain circulating throughout Vietnam, including the provinces near the China border [16].
  • CRF01_AE was concluded to be a predominant strain and the nucleotide CSs in gag p17 and env-V3 showed only 1.26% and no difference from CS in the Los Alamos database, respectively [17].
  • A Neospora caninum 17-19 kDa antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by N. caninum [18].

Other interactions of PDE6D


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PDE6D

  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and radiation hybrid mapping localised the human PDED gene to chromosome 2q37 [12].
  • The asymmetric unit contains a (p17/p12)2 tetramer, in agreement with the tetrameric structure of the protein in solution as determined by dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography [20].
  • METHODS: Sequences were generated from PCR products amplified directly (without cloning) from patient blood and compared in the v3/v4 region of env and the p17 and p24 regions of gag to reference subtype strains by phylogenetic analysis [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the anti-HIV-1 gag p17 scFv/Ckappa gene construct in primary human T cells renders these cells resistant to HIV-1 and points to the potential clinical usefulness of this gene construct for anti-HIV-1 gene therapy [15].
  • DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study of untreated HIV-1-infected subjects measuring HIV-1-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting CD4 T-cell responses against epitopes in Gag p17 and p24 and concurrent endogenous plasma HIV-1 RNA epitope sequence variation [22].


  1. Molecular characterization and mapping of canine cGMP-phosphodiesterase delta subunit (PDE6D). Wang, W., Zhang, Q., Acland, G.M., Mellersh, C., Ostrander, E.A., Ray, K., Aguirre, G.D. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines and counteracts IL-4 activity by binding to a cellular receptor. De Francesco, M.A., Baronio, M., Fiorentini, S., Signorini, C., Bonfanti, C., Poiesi, C., Popovic, M., Grassi, M., Garrafa, E., Bozzo, L., Lewis, G.K., Licenziati, S., Gallo, R.C., Caruso, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin alpha 1 and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30. Naylor, P.H., Naylor, C.W., Badamchian, M., Wada, S., Goldstein, A.L., Wang, S.S., Sun, D.K., Thornton, A.H., Sarin, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. cDNA encoding a single-chain antibody to HIV p17 with cytoplasmic or nuclear retention signals inhibits HIV-1 replication. Tewari, D., Goldstein, S.L., Notkins, A.L., Zhou, P. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Mitochondria-dependent and -independent regulation of Granzyme B-induced apoptosis. MacDonald, G., Shi, L., Vande Velde, C., Lieberman, J., Greenberg, A.H. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Catalytic activity of caspase-3 is required for its degradation: stabilization of the active complex by synthetic inhibitors. Tawa, P., Hell, K., Giroux, A., Grimm, E., Han, Y., Nicholson, D.W., Xanthoudakis, S. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural basis for degenerate recognition of natural HIV peptide variants by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Martinez-Hackert, E., Anikeeva, N., Kalams, S.A., Walker, B.D., Hendrickson, W.A., Sykulev, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. TNFalpha and oxLDL reduce protein S-nitrosylation in endothelial cells. Hoffmann, J., Haendeler, J., Zeiher, A.M., Dimmeler, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. High prevalence of diverse forms of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in Central Myanmar: geographical hot spot of extensive recombination. Takebe, Y., Motomura, K., Tatsumi, M., Lwin, H.H., Zaw, M., Kusagawa, S. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in both env and gag genes are required for HIV-1 resistance to the polysulfonic dendrimer SPL2923, as corroborated by chimeric virus technology. Hantson, A., Fikkert, V., Van Remoortel, B., Pannecouque, C., Cherepanov, P., Matthews, B., Holan, G., De Clercq, E., Vandamme, A.M., Debyser, Z., Witvrouw, M. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of human and mouse rod cGMP phosphodiesterase delta subunit (PDE6D) and chromosomal localization of the human gene. Li, N., Florio, S.K., Pettenati, M.J., Rao, P.N., Beavo, J.A., Baehr, W. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and gene structure of the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase delta subunit gene (PDED) in man and mouse. Lorenz, B., Migliaccio, C., Lichtner, P., Meyer, C., Strom, T.M., D'Urso, M., Becker, J., Ciccodicola, A., Meitinger, T. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitric oxide inhibits caspase-3 by S-nitrosation in vivo. Rössig, L., Fichtlscherer, B., Breitschopf, K., Haendeler, J., Zeiher, A.M., Mülsch, A., Dimmeler, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. HIV p17 enhances lymphocyte proliferation and HIV-1 replication after binding to a human serum factor. De Francesco, M.A., Caruso, A., Fallacara, F., Canaris, A.D., Dima, F., Poiesi, C., Licenziati, S., Corulli, M., Martinelli, F., Fiorentini, S., Turano, A. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in primary human T cells transduced with an intracellular anti-HIV-1 p17 antibody gene. Tewari, D., Notkins, A.L., Zhou, P. The journal of gene medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Closely related HIV-1 CRF01_AE variant among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam: evidence of HIV spread across the Vietnam-China border. Kato, K., Kusagawa, S., Motomura, K., Yang, R., Shiino, T., Nohtomi, K., Sato, H., Shibamura, K., Nguyen, T.H., Pham, K.C., Pham, H.T., Duong, C.T., Nguyen, T.H., Bui, D.T., Hoang, T.L., Nagai, Y., Takebe, Y. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Determination of HIV type 1 CRF01_AE gag p17 and env-V3 consensus sequences for HIV/AIDS vaccine design. Hamano, T., Sawanpanyalert, P., Yanai, H., Piyaworawong, S., Hara, T., Sapsutthipas, S., Phromjai, J., Yamazaki, S., Yamamoto, N., Warachit, P., Honda, M., Matsuo, K. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. The NcGRA7 gene encodes the immunodominant 17 kDa antigen of Neospora caninum. Alvarez-Garc??a, G., Pitarch, A., Zaballos, A., Fern??ndez-Garc??a, A., Gil, C., G??mez-Bautista, M., Aguado-Mart??nez, A., Ortega-Mora, L.M. Parasitology (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of P10- and P17-encoding genes of avian reovirus. Hsu, H.W., Su, H.Y., Huang, P.H., Lee, B.L., Liu, H.J. Avian Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure of recombinant human CPP32 in complex with the tetrapeptide acetyl-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone. Mittl, P.R., Di Marco, S., Krebs, J.F., Bai, X., Karanewsky, D.S., Priestle, J.P., Tomaselli, K.J., Grütter, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Inter- and intra-genic intersubtype HIV-1 recombination in rural and semi-urban Uganda. Yirrell, D.L., Kaleebu, P., Morgan, D., Watera, C., Magambo, B., Lyagoba, F., Whitworth, J. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses are not associated with significant viral epitope variation in persons with persistent plasma viremia. Koeppe, J.R., Campbell, T.B., Rapaport, E.L., Wilson, C.C. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2006) [Pubmed]
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