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Chemical Compound Review

Azothoate     (4-chlorophenyl)-(4- dimethoxyphosphinothio...

Synonyms: Alamos, Slam, AC1L2YEX, AR-1H7676, LS-108477, ...
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Disease relevance of Alamos

  • Malignant melanoma incidence at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [1].
  • We analysed in silico the membrane-interacting properties of gp41 N-terminal peptides of different length derived from the isolate BRU and from an alignment of 710 HIV strains available on the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Molecular modelling results indicated that the 12 residue long peptide should be the minimal fusion peptide [2].
  • Longitudinal studies of one individual with HIV-1 that consistently exhibited a slow/low growth phenotype revealed a single amino acid deletion in a conserved region of the gp41 transmembrane protein that was not seen in any of 131 envelope sequences in the Los Alamos HIV-1 sequence database [3].
  • Increased incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Los Alamos County, New Mexico [4].
  • An analysis of the SIV and HIV-2 sequences from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database revealed a significant association between any position 2 p11C, C-M epitope mutation and the I71V mutation [5].

Psychiatry related information on Alamos


High impact information on Alamos

  • The multi-disciplinary role of intermediate energy proton accelerators in pure and applied nuclear physics is discussed with particular reference to the experimental programmes at LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) and SIN (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, Zurich) [7].
  • Through microarray analysis, a putative transcription repressor annotated as Smu1274 in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Oral Pathogens Sequence Database was identified, which was strongly induced in the luxS mutant [8].
  • Currently, error-detection in the manually or electronically entered data contained in the nucleotide sequence databanks at EMBL, Heidelberg and GenBank at Los Alamos is limited [9].
  • The nucleic acid sequence databases of Los Alamos National Laboratory, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, and others are organized in a single relational database [10].
  • The location of nonsynonymous (NS) HIV mutations within these subjects was compared to their potential HLA-A and B types restricted CTL epitopes reported in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV immunology database [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Alamos

  • As the first step in the process of investigating the mechanism of action of D-xylose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus using neutron diffraction, data to better than 2.0 A were measured from the unliganded protein at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Protein Crystallography Station [12].
  • When this sequence was compared to the sequence database for AIDS and human retroviruses at Los Alamos, New Mexico, several isolates from other asymptomatic individuals were also found to encode nef genes with a cysteine at position 138 [13].

Biological context of Alamos

  • An interactive system for computer analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences has been developed for the Los Alamos DNA Sequence Database. It provides a convenient way to search or verify various sequence features, e.g., restriction enzyme sites, protein coding frames, and properties of coded proteins [14].
  • Physics experiment may cloud future of Los Alamos nuclear medicine program [15].
  • We have developed a framework physical map of this region using cosmid clones isolated from the Los Alamos arrayed chromosome 5-specific library [16].
  • We used this approach to measure selection on all available full-length HIV-1 subtype B genomes in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database, and compared these estimates against those obtained via established likelihood- and distance-based comparative methods [17].
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences, together with HIV-2 env gene sequences published in the Los Alamos database, support the identification of two distinct HIV-2 subtypes, HIV-2a and HIV-2b [18].

Anatomical context of Alamos

  • HIV-1 env sequences derived from paired blood and semen samples from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database were analyzed to ascertain a male genital tract-specific viral signature [19].
  • We have initiated cautious preliminary human studies utilizing the Los Alamos Keratoplasty unit in the last 12 months to reshape the corneas of keratoconus patients who were referred for penetrating keratoplasty [20].
  • Circulating strains in the Los Alamos database were evaluated and standardized algorithms to define all potential T-cell epitopes (PTEs) were generated [21].
  • Strontium-90 in fish muscle plus bone tissue significantly (p < 0.05) increases in concentration starting from Los Alamos Canyon, the most upstream confluence (fish contained 3.4E-02 pCi g-1 [126E-02 Bq kg-1]), to Frijoles Canyon, the most downstream confluence (fish contained 14E-02 pCi g-1 [518E-02 Bq kg-1]) [22].
  • All soft tissue, the bones from the right half of the skeleton, and the odd-numbered vertebrae were received at Los Alamos in February 1980 [23].

Associations of Alamos with other chemical compounds

  • Epitope mapping of 42F and 43F by binding to linear peptides demonstrated specificity of these MAbs for a sequence of 10 amino acids in the C5 domain comprising residues 491 to 500 (Los Alamos National Laboratory numbering for the HXB2 strain) [24].
  • A group of personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory is routinely monitored for the presence of uranium isotopes by urine bioassay [25].

Gene context of Alamos

  • All reported sequences using CCR5 or CXCR4 exclusively, or using both, were gathered from the Los Alamos HIV Database and analysed with regard to the V3 N-linked glycosylation motifs (sequons) and charge [26].
  • The rates of MS in Los Alamos County were greater than expected from previous epidemiologic surveys of North America. The unusual ethnic composition and high socioeconomic level of the population probably contributed to the increases [4].
  • This report describes the construction and the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity of a new type of antisense tRNA directed against a nucleotide region in the first coding exon of HIV-1 tat (nucleotides 5924 to 5943; Los Alamos data bank) which is conserved among many HIV-1 clones [27].
  • Viral strains included: (a) five new ones derived from New Orleans patient isolates, (b) four established ones grown in our laboratory, (c) eight, whose sequences were published in the Los Alamos Data Base (1990), (d) one Ugandan, and (e) two Brazilian isolates [28].
  • Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Alamos


  1. Malignant melanoma incidence at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Acquavella, J.F., Tietjen, G.L., Wilkinson, G.S., Key, C.R., Voelz, G.L. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. The N-terminal 12 residue long peptide of HIV gp41 is the minimal peptide sufficient to induce significant T-cell-like membrane destabilization in vitro. Charloteaux, B., Lorin, A., Crowet, J.M., Stroobant, V., Lins, L., Thomas, A., Brasseur, R. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Unusual polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 associated with nonprogressive infection. Alexander, L., Weiskopf, E., Greenough, T.C., Gaddis, N.C., Auerbach, M.R., Malim, M.H., O'Brien, S.J., Walker, B.D., Sullivan, J.L., Desrosiers, R.C. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. Hoffman, R.E., Zack, M.M., Davis, L.E., Burchfiel, C.M. Neurology (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Simian-human immunodeficiency virus escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition at a structurally constrained epitope. Peyerl, F.W., Barouch, D.H., Yeh, W.W., Bazick, H.S., Kunstman, J., Kunstman, K.J., Wolinsky, S.M., Letvin, N.L. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Los Alamos directors resign after row over sacked whistleblowers. Brumfiel, G. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The multi-disciplinary role of 'pion factories'. Davies, J.D., Batty, C.J., Green, K. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. LuxS controls bacteriocin production in Streptococcus mutans through a novel regulatory component. Merritt, J., Kreth, J., Shi, W., Qi, F. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Neural network detects errors in the assignment of mRNA splice sites. Brunak, S., Engelbrecht, J., Knudsen, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. A relational database system for the maintenance and verification of the Los Alamos sequence library. Kanehisa, M., Fickett, J.W., Goad, W.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Human immunodeficiency virus mutations during the first month of infection are preferentially found in known cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes. Bernardin, F., Kong, D., Peddada, L., Baxter-Lowe, L.A., Delwart, E. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. A preliminary time-of-flight neutron diffraction study of Streptomyces rubiginosus D-xylose isomerase. Hanson, B.L., Langan, P., Katz, A.K., Li, X., Harp, J.M., Glusker, J.P., Schoenborn, B.P., Bunick, G.J. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. The nef gene from a long-term HIV type 1 nonprogressor. Premkumar, D.R., Ma, X.Z., Maitra, R.K., Chakrabarti, B.K., Salkowitz, J., Yen-Lieberman, B., Hirsch, M.S., Kestler, H.W. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Los Alamos sequence analysis package for nucleic acids and proteins. Kanehisa, M.I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Physics experiment may cloud future of Los Alamos nuclear medicine program. Ketchum, L.E. J. Nucl. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A physical map of 15 loci on human chromosome 5q23-q33 by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. Saltman, D.L., Dolganov, G.M., Warrington, J.A., Wasmuth, J.J., Lovett, M. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Codon volatility does not reflect selective pressure on the HIV-1 genome. Pillai, S.K., Kosakovsky Pond, S.L., Woelk, C.H., Richman, D.D., Smith, D.M. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) env gene analysis: prediction of glycoprotein epitopes important for heterotypic neutralization and evidence for three genotype clusters within the HIV-2a subtype. Breuer, J., Douglas, N.W., Goldman, N., Daniels, R.S. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Semen-specific genetic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env. Pillai, S.K., Good, B., Pond, S.K., Wong, J.K., Strain, M.C., Richman, D.D., Smith, D.M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Preliminary report of Los Alamos Keratoplasty Techniques. Rowsey, J.J., Doss, J.D. Ophthalmology (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Peptide selection for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CTL-based vaccine evaluation. Li, F., Malhotra, U., Gilbert, P.B., Hawkins, N.R., Duerr, A.C., McElrath, J.M., Corey, L., Self, S.G. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Radionuclides and trace elements in fish collected upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the doses to humans from the consumption of muscle and bone. Fresquez, P.R., Kraig, D.H., Mullen, M.A., Naranjo, L. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. The U.S. Transuranium Registry report of the 241Am content of a whole body. Part IV: Preparation and analysis of the tissues and bones. McInroy, J.F., Boyd, H.A., Eutsler, B.C., Romero, D. Health physics. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity epitope in gp120 is identified by two monoclonal antibodies isolated from a long-term survivor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Alsmadi, O., Herz, R., Murphy, E., Pinter, A., Tilley, S.A. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Internal dosimetry of uranium isotopes using Bayesian inference methods. Little, T.T., Miller, G., Guilmette, R. Radiation protection dosimetry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. CCR5 use by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated closely with the gp120 V3 loop N-linked glycosylation site. Clevestig, P., Pramanik, L., Leitner, T., Ehrnst, A. J. Gen. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. A new antisense tRNA construct for the genetic treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Biasolo, M.A., Radaelli, A., Del Pup, L., Franchin, E., De Giuli-Morghen, C., Palu, G. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. PCR amplification of HIV-1 proteinase sequences directly from lab isolates allows determination of five conserved domains. Fontenot, G., Johnston, K., Cohen, J.C., Gallaher, W.R., Robinson, J., Luftig, R.B. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Plasma jet takes off. Frazer, L. Environ. Health Perspect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Environmental and human monitoring of Americium-241 utilizing extraction chromatography and alpha-spectrometry. Goldstein, S.J., Hensley, C.A., Armenta, C.E., Peters, R.J. Anal. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Pion treatment procedures and verification techniques. Zink, S.R., Bush, S.E., Gilman, C.J., Hilko, R.H., Justice, R.K., Osborne, E.C., Smith, A.R., Berardo, P.A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of individual human chromosomes by chromosome in situ suppression hybridization using PCR-amplified bacteriophage library probes. Burde, S., Leary, J.F. Genet. Anal. Tech. Appl. (1992) [Pubmed]
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