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Gene Review

PGR  -  progesterone receptor

Macaca mulatta

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Disease relevance of PR


High impact information on PR


Biological context of PR

  • Immunofluorescent analyses of E receptor (ER) and PR were performed on fresh frozen cryostat sections (6 microns) of uterine tissue from ovariectomized (3 months) and estradiol (E2)-treated (peak level of E2 during an artificial menstrual cycle) rhesus monkeys [4].
  • E2 treatment, which simulated the follicular phase and E2 surge, resulted in the appearance of immunofluorescent PR in luminal epithelia, stromal cells, and myometrial smooth muscle cells [4].
  • Although these observations suggest diverse cell-specific regulatory mechanisms, they are consistent with ER- and PR-mediated physiological events, such as PRL secretion and sexual behavior [5].
  • P regulation of luteal PR mRNA was investigated by administering trilostane, a 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, to female rhesus macaques beginning on day 6 or 7 of the luteal phase, which reduced serum P until the time of lutectomy [6].
  • Females were found to have approximately 30% more PR-labeled cells compared with males throughout the DRN (P < 0.05), but no sex difference was detected in the number of neurons demonstrating ER-ir [7].

Anatomical context of PR


Associations of PR with chemical compounds

  • Estrogen (E) has been shown to induce an increase in progesterone (P) receptor (PR) concentration in uterine tissue of both rodents and primates [4].
  • Because of the presence of different cell types within the uterus, we were interested in determining whether estrogen-induced PR were cell type specific in the nonhuman primate uterus (rhesus monkey) [4].
  • Steroid regulation of ER and PR mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary was examined with in situ hybridization [5].
  • PR mRNA was reduced by steroid depletion throughout the periovulatory interval (P < 0.05); however, progestin replacement returned PR mRNA to control levels at 12 h [9].
  • Antibodies to ER and PR were obtained from Abbott Laboratories (H222) and Transbio (MPR1) [4].

Other interactions of PR

  • However, P has no significant effect on PR expression in the hypothalamus even though P decreases ER in the ventromedial nucleus [5].
  • The distribution of androgen receptor was similar to that of ER, whereas there was no detectable staining for PR in the adrenals of either adult or fetal animals [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PR

  • There was excellent agreement with PR protein detection by immunocytochemistry [5].
  • The distribution of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), PRL, and gonadotropins in different cell types of the monkey pituitary was examined by immunocytochemical (ICC) labeling of pituitary cell cultures [10].
  • Progesterone receptor isoforms were identified and quantified by Western blot analysis, and PR mRNA was determined by a specific ribonuclease protection assay [11].


  1. Effects of conjugated estrogens, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and tamoxifen on the mammary glands of macaques. Cline, J.M., Soderqvist, G., von Schoultz, E., Skoog, L., von Schoultz, B. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Ovarian steroid protection against coronary artery hyperreactivity in rhesus monkeys. Minshall, R.D., Stanczyk, F.Z., Miyagawa, K., Uchida, B., Axthelm, M., Novy, M., Hermsmeyer, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Steroid hormone receptors in the adrenal glands of fetal and adult rhesus monkeys. Hirst, J.J., West, N.B., Brenner, R.M., Novy, M.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunofluorescent analysis of estrogen induction of progesterone receptor in the rhesus uterus. Okulicz, W.C., Savasta, A.M., Hoberg, L.M., Longcope, C. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Steroid regulation of estrogen and progestin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in monkey hypothalamus and pituitary. Bethea, C.L., Brown, N.A., Kohama, S.G. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the primate corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle: possible regulation by progesterone. Duffy, D.M., Stouffer, R.L. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical localization of nuclear estrogen receptors and progestin receptors within the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Alves, S.E., Weiland, N.G., Hayashi, S., McEwen, B.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Patterns of estrogen and progesterone receptors in rhesus monkey endometrium during secretory phase of normal menstrual cycle and preimplantation stages of gestation. Ghosh, D., Sengupta, J. J. Steroid Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Gonadotropin and steroid regulation of steroid receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in macaque granulosa cells during the periovulatory interval. Chaffin, C.L., Stouffer, R.L., Duffy, D.M. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Estrogen and progestin receptor immunocytochemistry in lactotropes versus gonadotropes of monkey pituitary cell cultures. Sprangers, S.A., Brenner, R.M., Bethea, C.L. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Progesterone receptor localization and isoforms in myometrium, decidua, and fetal membranes from rhesus macaques: evidence for functional progesterone withdrawal at parturition. Haluska, G.J., Wells, T.R., Hirst, J.J., Brenner, R.M., Sadowsky, D.W., Novy, M.J. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2002) [Pubmed]
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