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Gene Review

TNR  -  tenascin R

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Janusin, Restrictin, TN-R, Tenascin-R
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Disease relevance of TNR


High impact information on TNR

  • The axonal recognition molecule F11 is a multifunctional protein: specific domains mediate interactions with Ng-CAM and restrictin [5].
  • Furthermore, 2 molecules implicated in axonal pathfinding and mossy fiber sprouting, the extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin-R (TN-R), and the hyaluronan receptor CD44, were increased in NBD hippocampal neuropil [6].
  • Co-expression of TNR with T2N2 resulted in a mixed pattern of two conductance states, which is similar to that observed in wild-type CFTR [7].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of human TN-R (1358 amino acids) showed a homology to chicken and rat TN-R of 75 and 93%, respectively [1].
  • Using DNA from a panel of human-hamster and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids and by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have assigned the gene for human TN-R to the region 1q23-q24 [1].

Biological context of TNR

  • Previously, we have demonstrated that TN-R induces microprocesses along neurites and enlarged growth cones of tectal cells by interacting with the cell adhesion molecule contactin 1 [8].
  • Circadian rhythm of the soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor (sTNF-R75) receptor in humans--a possible explanation for the circadian kinetics of TNR-alpha effects [9].
  • Association of certain alleles and genotypes of the TNR/11q#1 repeat with both acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests the presence of a cancer related gene, involved in a wide spectrum of neoplasia, in the vicinity of this repeat [2].
  • Association analysis was carried out for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (TNR, intron 1), covering the genomic ALDH5A1 sequence [10].
  • The transcripts that were polymorphic in the TNR region were ATBF1-A (a homeodomain protein), clone 390013 on chromosome Xp11, a member of the family of the 14.3.3 protein kinase C regulators, a human translation initiation factor (an isolog of the yeast Suilisol gene 1), and a novel sequence (TR21) [11].

Anatomical context of TNR

  • With regard to TN-R function in low vertebrates capable of CNS regeneration, questions of particular interest concern the (co)evolution of ligand-receptor pairs and cellular response mechanisms associated with axon growth inhibition and oligodendrocyte differentiation [12].
  • Our findings suggest that a complex network of protein-protein interactions within the brain extracellular matrix, as shown here for TN-R and lecticans, is important for the fine-regulation of developmental processes such as microprocess formation along the neurite and neurite outgrowth [8].
  • Aggrecan, brevican and neurocan inhibit the effects of TN-R on microprocess formation and growth cone size [8].
  • These observations suggest that TN-R via its neuronal receptor contactin might induce a transition from long-distance growth of tectal interneurons to differentiation, including the formation of microprocesses [13].
  • These data are analyzed with respect to our model of tissue organization that we term the "restrictin model of cell growth regulation." This model assumes a morphogen-like role of activin A in the hematopoietic system [14].

Associations of TNR with chemical compounds

  • In a search for extracellular signals that affect the formation of microprocesses along neurites we found that the ECM glycoprotein tenascin-R (TN-R) but not other ECM glycoproteins increased the percentage of tectal neurons with actin-rich microprocesses and side branches [13].
  • Prior to Angiotensin II administration tumour blood flow was generally found to be greater than that of liver (10/11 lesions; 8/9 patients; median TNR 1.3, iqr 0.9-2.5) [15].
  • TNR was correlated to the doses of histamine by an empirical equation [16].
  • The expression of janusin is accelerated by exogenous testosterone [17].

Other interactions of TNR

  • In contrast to TN-R-F3, TN-R-sulfatide interactions, mediating oligodendrocyte adhesion and differentiation, are highly conserved during vertebrate evolution [12].
  • Time-lapse video microscopy showed that aggrecan has no acute effect on motility and morphology of microprocesses and growth cones but induces long-term neurite retraction after pre-treatment with TN-R [8].
  • Using six HLM samples, the percentage total normalized rate (% TNR) was calculated to estimate the contribution of each P450 in the total metabolism of endosulfan-alpha [18].
  • In multivariate analysis, a high alpha-fetoprotein level (risk ratio, 5.46; P = 0.003; risk ratio, 8.78; P = 0.006) and high TNR (risk ratio, 1.3; P = 0.03; risk ratio, 1.6; P = 0.02) were independent predictors of postoperative recurrence and overall survival [19].
  • Tumours were qualitatively considered "cold", "equivocal" or "hot" based on MAA uptake and the ratio of uptake in tumour and normal liver tissue was calculated (TNR) [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNR

  • The overall and disease-free survival rates in the high TNR (>/=2.0) group were significantly lower than in the low TNR (<2.0) group (P = 0.0001 and 0.0002) [19].
  • To investigate the role of TNR/11q#1 variants as risk-modifying factors in leukemogenesis, we conducted a case-control study on 113 acute lymphotic leukemia (ALL) patients, 82 CLL patients and 146 healthy controls of Russian origin [2].
  • Five minutes before and five minutes after each challenge, TNR was determined by active anterior rhinomanometry [16].
  • The bond strength of a high-impact, heat-cured denture base to three commercial brands of denture teeth, Bioform, Dentacryl, and TNR, was assessed [21].
  • Group A comprised of government schools located in slum areas with an average parental income of INR (Indian National Rupees) 1050 per month and group B of elite private schools with an average family income of TNR 35,000 per month [22].


  1. Human tenascin-R. Complete primary structure, pre-mRNA alternative splicing and gene localization on chromosome 1q23-q24. Carnemolla, B., Leprini, A., Borsi, L., Querzé, G., Urbini, S., Zardi, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. TNR/11q#1 trinucleotide (GCC)n repeat alleles and predisposition to acute and chronic leukemia. Klinkov, A.A., Nikitin, E.A., Maiorova, O.V., Ivanov, M.A., Strelnikov, V.V., Babenko, O.V., Zemlyakova, V.V., Kuznetsova, E.B., Zaletayev, D.V. Ann. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in hyperthyroidism. Senturk, T., Kozaci, L.D., Kok, F., Kadikoylu, G., Bolaman, Z. Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Tenascin-R and C in multiple sclerosis lesions: relevance to extracellular matrix remodelling. Gutowski, N.J., Newcombe, J., Cuzner, M.L. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The axonal recognition molecule F11 is a multifunctional protein: specific domains mediate interactions with Ng-CAM and restrictin. Brümmendorf, T., Hubert, M., Treubert, U., Leuschner, R., Tárnok, A., Rathjen, F.G. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Metallothioneins and zinc dysregulation contribute to neurodevelopmental damage in a model of perinatal viral infection. Williams, B.L., Yaddanapudi, K., Kirk, C.M., Soman, A., Hornig, M., Lipkin, W.I. Brain Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The two halves of CFTR form a dual-pore ion channel. Yue, H., Devidas, S., Guggino, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Competition and cooperation between tenascin-R, lecticans and contactin 1 regulate neurite growth and morphology. Zacharias, U., Rauch, U. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Circadian rhythm of the soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor (sTNF-R75) receptor in humans--a possible explanation for the circadian kinetics of TNR-alpha effects. Liebmann, P.M., Reibnegger, G., Lehofer, M., Moser, M., Pürstner, P., Mangge, H., Schauenstein, K. Int. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Candidate gene analysis of the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH5A1) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and photosensitivity. Lorenz, S., Heils, A., Taylor, K.P., Gehrmann, A., Muhle, H., Gresch, M., Becker, T., Tauer, U., Stephani, U., Sander, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of trinucleotide- and tandem repeat-containing transcripts obtained from human spinal cord cDNA library by high-density filter hybridization. Kaushik, N., Malaspina, A., de Belleroche, J. DNA Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Early coevolution of adhesive but not antiadhesive tenascin-R ligand-receptor pairs in vertebrates: a phylogenetic study. Pesheva, P., Probstmeier, R., Lang, D.M., McBride, R., Hsu, N.J., Gennarini, G., Spiess, E., Peshev, Z. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Tenascin-R induces actin-rich microprocesses and branches along neurite shafts. Zacharias, U., Leuschner, R., Nörenberg, U., Rathjen, F.G. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of activin A in negative regulation of normal and tumor B lymphocytes. Zipori, D., Barda-Saad, M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Continuous angiotensin II infusion increases tumour: normal blood flow ratio in colo-rectal liver metastases. Burke, D., Davies, M.M., Zweit, J., Flower, M.A., Ott, R.J., Dworkin, M.J., Glover, C., McCready, V.R., Carnochan, P., Allen-Mersh, T.G. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Non-specific nasal provocation test with histamine. Analysis of the dose-response curve. Zambetti, G., Moresi, M., Romeo, R., Luce, M., Filiaci, F. Rhinology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Exogenous testosterone alters expression pattern of cell recognition molecules in brains of juvenile zebra finches. Burkhardt-Holm, P., Kafitz, K.W., Güttinger, H.R., Schachner, M. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolism of Endosulfan-{alpha} by Human Liver Microsomes and Its Utility as a Simultaneous in Vitro Probe for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Casabar, R.C., Wallace, A.D., Hodgson, E., Rose, R.L. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Tumor Differentiation, P-glycoprotein Expression, and Outcome after Resection in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Seo, S., Hatano, E., Higashi, T., Hara, T., Tada, M., Tamaki, N., Iwaisako, K., Ikai, I., Uemoto, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationship of 99mtechnetium labelled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) uptake by colorectal liver metastases to response following Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT). Dhabuwala, A., Lamerton, P., Stubbs, R.S. BMC nuclear medicine [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Shear bond strength of denture teeth to base: a comparative study. Thean, H.P., Chew, C.L., Goh, K.I. Quintessence international. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. A comparative evaluation of ear diseases in children of higher versus lower socioeconomic status. Chadha, S.K., Agarwal, A.K., Gulati, A., Garg, A. The Journal of laryngology and otology. (2006) [Pubmed]
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