The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

SCGB3A1  -  secretoglobin, family 3A, member 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cytokine HIN-1, HIN-1, HIN1, High in normal 1, LU105, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SCGB3A1


High impact information on SCGB3A1

  • HIN-1, a putative cytokine highly expressed in normal but not cancerous mammary epithelial cells [2].
  • These results indicate that HIN-1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated at high frequency in the earliest stages of breast tumorogenesis [2].
  • Investigation of multiple signaling pathways revealed that mitogen-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT are inhibited in HIN-1-expressing cells [3].
  • Here, we report that HIN-1 is a potent inhibitor of anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent cell growth, cell migration, and invasion [3].
  • However, analysis of HIN-1 promoter methylation status revealed that in striking contrast to sporadic cases, there is a nearly complete lack of HIN-1 methylation in BRCA1 tumors (P < 0.0001) [4].

Biological context of SCGB3A1


Anatomical context of SCGB3A1

  • This decrease in HIN-1 expression is accompanied by hypermethylation of its promoter in the majority of breast cancer cell lines (>90%) and primary tumors (74%) [2].
  • To establish whether germ-line mutations in HIN-1 may influence breast cancer risk, we sequenced the HIN-1 coding region in 10 familial breast cancer patients with positive logarithm of the odds scores of at least one of the markers flanking HIN-1 [4].
  • HIN-1 is highly expressed in the mammary gland, trachea, lung, prostate, pancreas, and salivary gland, and in the lung, its expression is primarily restricted to bronchial epithelial cells [9].
  • Methylated HIN-1 promoter was detected in 12 of 26 (46%) nasopharyngeal swabs, 5 of 26 (19%) throat-rinsing fluids, 2 of 11 (18%) plasmas, and 5 of 11 (46%) buffy coats of peripheral blood of the NPC patients but was not detectable in all normal controls [10].

Associations of SCGB3A1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of SCGB3A1

  • SCGB3A1 messenger RNA localizes to a subset of SCGB3A2-expressing cells within bronchi of both mouse and neonatal human lungs [1].
  • The three most frequently methylated genes among this subtype were SCGB3A1 (54%), RASSF1A (29%), and HOXA9 (26%) [13].
  • In conclusion, this study has identified several novel epigenetically deregulated target genes in TGCT development, including homeobox genes and SCGB3A1, suggesting that epigenetic inactivation of key genes in normal development also has an important role in TGCTs [13].
  • Compared with the primary breast carcinomas, all five genes had higher methylation frequencies in the bone, brain, and lung metastasis, with HIN-1 and RAR-beta methylation being significantly higher (P < 0.01) in each group [14].
  • Lack of HIN-1 methylation defines specific breast tumor subtypes including medullary carcinoma of the breast and BRCA1-linked tumors [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SCGB3A1

  • Expression of HIN-1 mRNA was analyzed by in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcribed PCR [16].
  • Univariate survival curves, estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier, defined a significant association between HIN-1 expression and both overall survival (P = 0.0095) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0122) [6].
  • In this report, we show that, correlating with the secretory nature of HIN-1, high levels of HIN-1 protein are detected in bronchial lavage, saliva, plasma, and serum [9].


  1. Secretoglobins SCGB3A1 and SCGB3A2 define secretory cell subsets in mouse and human airways. Reynolds, S.D., Reynolds, P.R., Pryhuber, G.S., Finder, J.D., Stripp, B.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. HIN-1, a putative cytokine highly expressed in normal but not cancerous mammary epithelial cells. Krop, I.E., Sgroi, D., Porter, D.A., Lunetta, K.L., LeVangie, R., Seth, P., Kaelin, C.M., Rhei, E., Bosenberg, M., Schnitt, S., Marks, J.R., Pagon, Z., Belina, D., Razumovic, J., Polyak, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. HIN-1, an inhibitor of cell growth, invasion, and AKT activation. Krop, I., Parker, M.T., Bloushtain-Qimron, N., Porter, D., Gelman, R., Sasaki, H., Maurer, M., Terry, M.B., Parsons, R., Polyak, K. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Lack of HIN-1 methylation in BRCA1-linked and "BRCA1-like" breast tumors. Krop, I., Maguire, P., Lahti-Domenici, J., Lodeiro, G., Richardson, A., Johannsdottir, H.K., Nevanlinna, H., Borg, A., Gelman, R., Barkardottir, R.B., Lindblom, A., Polyak, K. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of uteroglobin-related protein 1 and macrophage scavenger receptor with collagenous structure as a lung-specific ligand-receptor pair. Bin, L.H., Nielson, L.D., Liu, X., Mason, R.J., Shu, H.B. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Down regulation of high in normal-1 (HIN-1) is a frequent event in stage I non-small cell lung cancer and correlates with poor clinical outcome. Marchetti, A., Barassi, F., Martella, C., Chella, A., Salvatore, S., Castrataro, A., Mucilli, F., Sacco, R., Buttitta, F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of the mouse gene (Scgb3a1, alias Ugrp2) that encodes a member of the novel uteroglobin-related protein gene family. Niimi, T., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Srisodsai, A., Zimonjic, D.B., Keck-Waggoner, C.L., Popescu, N.C., Kimura, S. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of high in normal-1 (HIN-1) and uteroglobin related protein-1 (UGRP-1) in adult and developing tissues. Porter, D., Lahti-Domenici, J., Torres-Arzayus, M., Chin, L., Polyak, K. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Frequent HIN-1 promoter methylation and lack of expression in multiple human tumor types. Krop, I., Player, A., Tablante, A., Taylor-Parker, M., Lahti-Domenici, J., Fukuoka, J., Batra, S.K., Papadopoulos, N., Richards, W.G., Sugarbaker, D.J., Wright, R.L., Shim, J., Stamey, T.A., Sellers, W.R., Loda, M., Meyerson, M., Hruban, R., Jen, J., Polyak, K. Mol. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Promoter hypermethylation of high-in-normal 1 gene in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Wong, T.S., Kwong, D.L., Sham, J.S., Tsao, S.W., Wei, W.I., Kwong, Y.L., Yuen, A.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Aberrant methylation of HIN-1 (high in normal-1) is a frequent event in many human malignancies. Shigematsu, H., Suzuki, M., Takahashi, T., Miyajima, K., Toyooka, S., Shivapurkar, N., Tomlinson, G.E., Mastrangelo, D., Pass, H.I., Brambilla, E., Sathyanarayana, U.G., Czerniak, B., Fujisawa, T., Shimizu, N., Gazdar, A.F. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Novel protein kinase C and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors of vegetable origin as potential modulators of Langerhans cell migration following hapten-induced sensitization. Staquet, M.J., Piccardi, N., Piccirilli, A., Vincent, C., Schmitt, D., Msika, P. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Novel epigenetically deregulated genes in testicular cancer include homeobox genes and SCGB3A1 (HIN-1). Lind, G., Skotheim, R., Fraga, M., Abeler, V., Esteller, M., Lothe, R. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Very high frequency of hypermethylated genes in breast cancer metastasis to the bone, brain, and lung. Mehrotra, J., Vali, M., McVeigh, M., Kominsky, S.L., Fackler, M.J., Lahti-Domenici, J., Polyak, K., Sacchi, N., Garrett-Mayer, E., Argani, P., Sukumar, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Lack of HIN-1 methylation defines specific breast tumor subtypes including medullary carcinoma of the breast and BRCA1-linked tumors. Tisserand, P., Fouquet, C., Barrois, M., Gallou, C., Dendale, R., Stoppa-Lyonnet, D., Sastre-Garau, X., Fourquet, A., Soussi, T. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancers of young African-American women have a higher frequency of methylation of multiple genes than those of Caucasian women. Mehrotra, J., Ganpat, M.M., Kanaan, Y., Fackler, M.J., McVeigh, M., Lahti-Domenici, J., Polyak, K., Argani, P., Naab, T., Garrett, E., Parmigiani, G., Broome, C., Sukumar, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities