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Gene Review

G  -  glycoprotein

Australian bat lyssavirus

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Disease relevance of G

  • The 2.2-kb chimeric HIV-1/RV envelope protein is composed of the HIV-1 Env ectodomain (ED) and transmembrane domain (TD) fused to RV glycoprotein (G) cytoplasmic domain (CD), which is required for efficient incorporation of HIV-1 Env into RV particles [1].
  • The anti-G MAb reactivity pattern was the same in the four isolates indicating that they belong to the same antigenic group, but were antigenically distinct from the Flury LEP rabies vaccine virus which is widely used throughout Nigeria for canine vaccination, and from other previously characterized street lyssaviruses from Nigeria [2].
  • Rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have served to describe operationally the topography of the antigenic structure of the glycoprotein and nucleocapsid proteins of rabies virus [3].
  • The glycoprotein antigen translated from G-mRNA in oocytes migrated in the gel ahead of the virion G protein with a migration rate that was similar to that of nonglycosylated intracellular glycoproteins from virus-infected cells [4].
  • The glycoprotein G of rhabdoviruses [5].

Psychiatry related information on G

  • The binding of three of the five alpha Id Ab to their homologous mAb could be inhibited by rabies virus-soluble glycoprotein, suggesting that the alpha Id Ab possessed subpopulations similar or adjacent to the antigen-binding site of the mAb [6].

High impact information on G


Chemical compound and disease context of G


Biological context of G

  • This relationship is apparent using all three viral genes, and causes overlap between intragenotype and intergenotype identities for the P gene (Aravan, Khujand viruses and genotype 6) and for the G gene (Aravan, Khujand, genotypes 5 and 6) [16].
  • After a stimulation with complete virus, lymphocytes originating from donors vaccinated with tissue culture vaccine produced a secondary antibody-response composed mainly of glycoprotein-specific neutralizing antibodies, whereas lymphocytes from suckling mouse brain vaccines produced essentially NC-specific antibodies [17].
  • Antigenic diversity of the glycoprotein and nucleocapsid proteins of rabies and rabies-related viruses: implications for epidemiology and control of rabies [3].
  • Of note, the observed attenuation of pathogenicity did not result in either the attenuation of the humoral response against the RV G or the previously observed robust cellular response against HIV-1 Gag [18].
  • From these studies, we conclude that viral G proteins gradually accumulate in the rER with M2 protein and the expanded rER converts eventually into the FCPS, which may be closely related to accelerated host cell death [19].

Anatomical context of G


Associations of G with chemical compounds

  • On the basis of reactivity with a panel of 40 anti-glycoprotein (G) MAbs the isolates were separated into four distinct viral subtypes [24].
  • For this approach, we modified the previously described RV vaccine vector SPBN by replacing the arginine at position 333 (R333) within the RV glycoprotein (G) with glutamic acid (E333), deleting 43 amino acids of the RV G cytoplasmic domain (CD), or combining the R333 exchange and the CD deletion [18].
  • Substitutions for lysine at position 330 and for arginine at position 333 in RV G greatly reduce interaction between Gcvs-Sf21 cells and NG108-15 cells [11].
  • On the other hand, yGII was Triton-soluble, but was only small in amount (at most 1% of total G proteins) and was shown to lack the cytoplasmic domain [25].
  • But, when the G-BHK cells were treated with 2.5 m M sodium butyrate (NaB) after the removal of tetracycline, we could observe not only a much increased frequency of G protein-producing cells, but also the greatly enhanced maturation of the protein [26].

Other interactions of G

  • All rabies vaccinees had antibodies to N and G components by day 10 after the first vaccine injection [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of G


  1. Functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pol or HIV-1 Gag-Pol and env expressed from a single rhabdovirus-based vaccine vector genome. McGettigan, J.P., Naper, K., Orenstein, J., Koser, M., McKenna, P.M., Schnell, M.J. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Further studies on rabies virus isolated from healthy dogs in Nigeria. Aghomo, H.O., Rupprecht, C.E. Vet. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Antigenic diversity of the glycoprotein and nucleocapsid proteins of rabies and rabies-related viruses: implications for epidemiology and control of rabies. Dietzschold, B., Rupprecht, C.E., Tollis, M., Lafon, M., Mattei, J., Wiktor, T.J., Koprowski, H. Rev. Infect. Dis. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Rabies mRNA translation in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Wunner, W.H., Curtis, P.J., Wiktor, T.J. J. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. The glycoprotein G of rhabdoviruses. Coll, J.M. Arch. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Anti-idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus glycoprotein. Reagan, K.J., Wunner, W.H., Wiktor, T.J., Koprowski, H. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Large-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine. Brochier, B., Kieny, M.P., Costy, F., Coppens, P., Bauduin, B., Lecocq, J.P., Languet, B., Chappuis, G., Desmettre, P., Afiademanyo, K. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus. Kieny, M.P., Lathe, R., Drillien, R., Spehner, D., Skory, S., Schmitt, D., Wiktor, T., Koprowski, H., Lecocq, J.P. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Amino acid sequence similarity between rabies virus glycoprotein and snake venom curaremimetic neurotoxins. Lentz, T.L., Wilson, P.T., Hawrot, E., Speicher, D.W. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Lentivector-mediated SMN replacement in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. Azzouz, M., Le, T., Ralph, G.S., Walmsley, L., Monani, U.R., Lee, D.C., Wilkes, F., Mitrophanous, K.A., Kingsman, S.M., Burghes, A.H., Mazarakis, N.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuronal cell surface molecules mediate specific binding to rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by a recombinant baculovirus on the surfaces of lepidopteran cells. Tuffereau, C., Benejean, J., Alfonso, A.M., Flamand, A., Fishman, M.C. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A single amino acid change in rabies virus glycoprotein increases virus spread and enhances virus pathogenicity. Faber, M., Faber, M.L., Papaneri, A., Bette, M., Weihe, E., Dietzschold, B., Schnell, M.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Intracellular behavior of rabies virus matrix protein (M) is determined by the viral glycoprotein (G). Nakahara, K., Ohnuma, H., Sugita, S., Yasuoka, K., Nakahara, T., Tochikura, T.S., Kawai, A. Microbiol. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and purification of a polymeric form of the glycoprotein of rabies virus. Dietzschold, B., Cox, J.H., Schneider, L.G., Wiktor, T.J., Koprowski, H. J. Gen. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. A single-radial-immunodiffusion technique for the assay of rabies glycoprotein antigen: application for potency tests of vaccines against rabies. Ferguson, M., Schild, G.C. J. Gen. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the Lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssavirus genotype definition. Kuzmin, I.V., Hughes, G.J., Botvinkin, A.D., Orciari, L.A., Rupprecht, C.E. Virus Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Nucleocapsid specific T and B cell responses in humans after rabies vaccination. Herzog, M., Lafage, M., Montaño-Hirose, J.A., Fritzell, C., Scott-Algara, D., Lafon, M. Virus Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Second-generation rabies virus-based vaccine vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag have greatly reduced pathogenicity but are highly immunogenic. McGettigan, J.P., Pomerantz, R.J., Siler, C.A., McKenna, P.M., Foley, H.D., Dietzschold, B., Schnell, M.J. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Studies on unusual cytoplasmic structures which contain rabies virus envelope proteins. Ni, Y., Iwatani, Y., Morimoto, K., Kawai, A. J. Gen. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolation and characterization of human T cell lines and clones reactive to rabies virus: antigen specificity and production of interferon-gamma. Celis, E., Miller, R.W., Wiktor, T.J., Dietzschold, B., Koprowski, H. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Amplification of rabies virus-induced stimulation of human T-cell lines and clones by antigen-specific antibodies. Celis, E., Wiktor, T.J., Dietzschold, B., Koprowski, H. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Vaccination challenge studies with variants of street rabies virus isolated in Nigeria. Okoh, A.E., Umoh, J.U., Ezeokoli, C.D., Addo, P.B. Vaccine (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversible conformational changes and fusion activity of rabies virus glycoprotein. Gaudin, Y., Tuffereau, C., Segretain, D., Knossow, M., Flamand, A. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Antigenic characterisation of virus isolates from vaccinated dogs dying of rabies. Aghomo, H.O., Rupprecht, C.E. Tropical animal health and production. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Studies on the structures and antigenic properties of rabies virus glycoprotein analogues produced in yeast cells. Sakamoto, S., Ide, T., Tokiyoshi, S., Nakao, J., Hamada, F., Yamamoto, M., Grosby, J.A., Ni, Y., Kawai, A. Vaccine (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Studies on the conditions required for structural and functional maturation of rabies virus glycoprotein (G) in G cDNA-transfected cells. Sakai, M., Kankanamge, P.J., Shoji, J., Kawata, S., Tochikura, T.S., Kawai, A. Microbiol. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Human immune response to rabies nucleocapsid and glycoprotein antigens. Kasempimolporn, S., Hemachudha, T., Khawplod, P., Manatsathit, S. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Use of anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies to characterize rabies virus in formalin-fixed tissues. Warner, C., Fekadu, M., Whitfield, S., Shaddock, J. J. Virol. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The apparent infection of NA-C1300 cell cultures by nucleocapsid material of the Canadian Arctic strain of rabies virus. Webster, W.A., Charlton, K.M. Can. J. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Antigenic variants of rabies virus. Schneider, L.G. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. The influence of the type of immunosorbent on rabies antibody EIA; advantages of purified glycoprotein over whole virus. Perrin, P., Versmisse, P., Delagneau, J.F., Lucas, G., Rollin, P.E., Sureau, P. Journal of biological standardization. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Mokola virus glycoprotein and chimeric proteins can replace rabies virus glycoprotein in the rescue of infectious defective rabies virus particles. Mebatsion, T., Schnell, M.J., Conzelmann, K.K. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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