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Gene Review

NP  -  nucleocapsid protein

Human parainfluenza virus 2

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Disease relevance of NP

  • Marked differences in the apparent Mrs of the HN, NP and F proteins of simian virus 5 (SV5) and parainfluenza virus type 2 (PF-2) were revealed by SDS-PAGE [1].
  • These antibodies had specificities for the HN, NP and P proteins and together with 54 MAbs to SV5 were tested for their ability to react with SV5, PF-2, PF-3, mumps and measles virus proteins [1].
  • Six other Sendai virus monoclonal antibodies directed against four different epitopes of the HN protein and one directed against the NP protein cross-reacted with mumps virus [2].
  • A recombinant baculovirus expressing the nucleocapsid gene (NP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the genus Rubulavirus, has been generated and shown to express the native protein to high levels in insect cells [3].
  • Significant differences in nucleocapsid morphology within the Paramyxoviridae [4].

High impact information on NP

  • Two regions of mumps virus were amplified: the nucleocapsid gene and the polymerase-associated protein gene [5].
  • Variations were found in four, three, and three different antigenic sites of the NP, P, and HN proteins, respectively [6].
  • A recombinant expression plasmid was designed to produce antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the 5' end of the MV nucleocapsid protein mRNA [7].
  • The epitopes recognized by 41 monoclonal antibodies directed against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) were mapped on the primary structure of the hPIV-2 NP protein by testing their reactivities with deletion mutants [8].
  • Therefore, we conclude that the P protein acts as a chaperone, preventing uncontrolled encapsidation of non-viral RNA by NP protein [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of NP


Biological context of NP


Anatomical context of NP

  • Of 30 hybridoma clones against PIV-4B, 13 clones were found to produce antibodies against the NP protein, 7 against the HN protein, and 10 against the F protein [14].
  • When using the MAb against the NP protein, nucleocapsid organization was the most prominent feature and resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies visible by light and electron microscopy [15].
  • To study the interaction between NP and P proteins, we established HeLa cell lines that constitutively expressed the NP and/or P proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) [12].
  • Ribozyme-mediated decrease in mumps virus nucleocapsid mRNA level and progeny in infected vero cells [16].
  • The proliferative T lymphocyte responses to two different mumps antigen preparations, S (nucleocapsid) and V (viral envelope), were characterized [17].

Associations of NP with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NP

  • CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures [19].
  • In the HN and NP components, RIPA revealed variations in three and seven determinants respectively [20].
  • In addition, cells co-expressing NP and P proteins with N-terminal deletions showed immunofluorescence staining patterns (granular pattern) similar to those found in hPIV-2-infected cells [12].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the NP and P proteins can form complexes in HeLa cells expressing both proteins (HeLa-NP+P cells) and in mixed cell lysates of HeLa-NP and HeLa-P cells [12].
  • In situ hybridization carried out with a 3H-labeled DNA probe, specific for the measles nucleocapsid protein, detects measles virus nucleotide sequences in the nuclei and cytoplasm of pagetic osteoclasts, confirming ultrastructural and immunocytologic findings [21].


  1. Comparison between parainfluenza virus type 2 and simian virus 5: monoclonal antibodies reveal major antigenic differences. Randall, R.E., Young, D.F. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunological relationships between mumps virus and parainfluenza viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies. Orvell, C., Rydbeck, R., Löve, A. J. Gen. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Assembly of recombinant Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein into nucleocapsid-like structures is inhibited by the phosphoprotein. Errington, W., Emmerson, P.T. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Significant differences in nucleocapsid morphology within the Paramyxoviridae. Bhella, D., Ralph, A., Murphy, L.B., Yeo, R.P. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Viral infection of the myocardium in endocardial fibroelastosis. Molecular evidence for the role of mumps virus as an etiologic agent. Ni, J., Bowles, N.E., Kim, Y.H., Demmler, G., Kearney, D., Bricker, J.T., Towbin, J.A. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The reactions of monoclonal antibodies with structural proteins of mumps virus. Orvell, C. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Antisense-mediated resistance to measles virus infection in HeLa cells. Bell, A.F., Whitton, J.L., Fujinami, R.S. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Mapping of domains on the human parainfluenza virus type 2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) required for NP-phosphoprotein or NP-NP interaction. Nishio, M., Tsurudome, M., Ito, M., Kawano, M., Kusagawa, S., Komada, H., Ito, Y. J. Gen. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Serological diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections by enzyme immunoassay with special emphasis on purity of viral antigens. Julkunen, I. J. Med. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Common peptide epitope in mumps virus nucleocapsid protein and MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Hyöty, H., Parkkonen, P., Rode, M., Bakke, O., Leinikki, P. Scand. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence analyses of the 3' genome end and NP gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus: sequence variation of the gene-starting signal and the conserved 3' end. Yuasa, T., Bando, H., Kawano, M., Tsurudome, M., Nishio, M., Kondo, K., Komada, H., Ito, Y. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Interaction between nucleocapsid protein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) of human parainfluenza virus type 2: one of the two NP binding sites on P is essential for granule formation. Nishio, M., Tsurudome, M., Kawano, M., Watanabe, N., Ohgimoto, S., Ito, M., Komada, H., Ito, Y. J. Gen. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. cDNA cloning of the nucleocapsid and nucleocapsid-associated protein genes of mumps virus. Curran, J.A., Quinn, J.P., Hoey, E.M., Martin, S.J., Rima, B.K. J. Gen. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human parainfluenza virus type 4 and their use in revealing antigenic relation between subtypes 4A and 4B. Komada, H., Tsurudome, M., Ueda, M., Nishio, M., Bando, H., Ito, Y. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Uptake of porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) by PK-15 cells. Hernández-Jáuregui, P., Yacoub, A., Kennedy, S., Curran, B., Téllez, C., Svenda, M., Ljung, L., Moreno-López, J. Arch. Med. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Ribozyme-mediated decrease in mumps virus nucleocapsid mRNA level and progeny in infected vero cells. Albuquerque-Silva, J., Milican, F., Bollen, A., Houard, S. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. HLA control of the proliferative T lymphocyte response to antigenic determinants on mumps virus. Studies of healthy individuals and patients with type 1 diabetes. Bruserud, O., Thorsby, E. Scand. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Synthesis of mumps virus nucleocapsid protein in yeast Pichia pastoris. Slibinskas, R., Zvirbliene, A., Gedvilaite, A., Samuel, D., Jin, L., Beard, S., Staniulis, J., Sasnauskas, K. J. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles. Schmitt, A.P., Leser, G.P., Waning, D.L., Lamb, R.A. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Antigenic variation of envelope and internal proteins of mumps virus strains detected with monoclonal antibodies. Rydbeck, R., Löve, A., Orvell, C., Norrby, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. On the trail of paramyxoviruses in Paget's disease of bone. Baslé, M.F., Rebel, A., Fournier, J.G., Russell, W.C., Malkani, K. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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