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Gene Review

fur  -  ferric iron uptake regulon transcriptional...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0671, JW0669
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Disease relevance of fur


High impact information on fur

  • No RyhB sequence homologs were found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, despite the identification of genes positively regulated by its Fur homolog [6].
  • Reduction of the disulfide bridges causes only local structure variations, whereas zinc addition to reduced Fur induces protein dimerization [7].
  • Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global bacterial regulator that uses iron as a cofactor to bind to specific DNA sequences [7].
  • The discovery that Fur is a zinc metalloprotein and the use of surrogate metals for Fe(2+) for in vitro studies question whether Fur is a direct iron sensor [5].
  • Fur, a ferric uptake regulator that negatively regulates this operon in response to iron availability, did not mediate the oxidant induction [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of fur

  • The single cysteine residue of P. aeruginosa Fur aligns with a cysteine in other members of the Fur family that is essential for activity of the E. coli protein, and is believed to provide one of the ligands to a structural Zn(2+) ion [9].
  • The ferric uptake regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has no essential cysteine residues and does not contain a structural zinc ion [9].

Biological context of fur


Anatomical context of fur

  • The predictive regulatory regions of 28 C. trachomatis open reading frames contained sequences functionally recognized by E. coli Fur; targets include components of the type III secretion pathway, elements involved in envelope and cell wall biogenesis, predicted transport proteins, oxidative defense enzymes, and components of metabolic pathways [14].

Associations of fur with chemical compounds

  • Finally, the loss of both Crp and Fur activated a heterogeneous group of genes under sigmaS control encoding, for example, the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, Cfa, the glycogen synthesis protein, GlgS, the 30S ribosomal protein, S22, and the mechanosensitive channel protein, YggB [11].
  • Thus, the P. aeruginosa Fur can probably accommodate a single Zn(2+) ion bound to the metal-sensing site [9].
  • Alanine substitutions of residues in this motif showed His-87 and His-89 of P. aeruginosa Fur to be essential for activity, whilst His-86 and Asp-88 are partially dispensable [9].
  • As-prepared native Fur contained small amounts of Zn(2+) that were easily removed by treatment with EDTA, and apo-protein could be reconstituted with approximately one Zn(2+) ion per monomer [9].
  • For induction by glucose and L-glutamate, the processes are independent of integration host factor (IHF), H-NS, CysB, ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and RelA [15].

Regulatory relationships of fur

  • We investigated the ability of fusion proteins containing the N- or C-terminal domain of Fur to dimerize and to repress a Fur-regulated lacZ fusion gene [16].

Other interactions of fur

  • The C-terminal domain of Fur, when fused to the N-terminus of CI857, repressed a lambda Pr-regulated lacZ fusion, indicating dimerization of the chimeric protein, which is a prerequisite for CI activity [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fur


  1. Gene repression by the ferric uptake regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cycle selection of iron-regulated genes. Ochsner, U.A., Vasil, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Reduced hydroperoxidase (HPI and HPII) activity in the Deltafur mutant contributes to increased sensitivity to UVA radiation in Escherichia coli. Hoerter, J.D., Arnold, A.A., Ward, C.S., Sauer, M., Johnson, S., Fleming, T., Eisenstark, A. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of the furA and catC operon, encoding a ferric uptake regulator homologue and catalase-peroxidase, respectively, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Hahn, J.S., Oh, S.Y., Roe, J.H. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and characterization of a fur homologue from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Alahari, A., Tripathi, A.K., Le Rudulier, D. Curr. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum is an iron-responsive transcriptional repressor in vitro. Friedman, Y.E., O'Brian, M.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of tandem duplicate regulatory small RNAs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in iron homeostasis. Wilderman, P.J., Sowa, N.A., FitzGerald, D.J., FitzGerald, P.C., Gottesman, S., Ochsner, U.A., Vasil, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural changes of Escherichia coli ferric uptake regulator during metal-dependent dimerization and activation explored by NMR and X-ray crystallography. Pecqueur, L., D'Autréaux, B., Dupuy, J., Nicolet, Y., Jacquamet, L., Brutscher, B., Michaud-Soret, I., Bersch, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of the sufA operon encoding Fe-S assembly proteins by superoxide generators and hydrogen peroxide: involvement of OxyR, IHF and an unidentified oxidant-responsive factor. Lee, J.H., Yeo, W.S., Roe, J.H. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The ferric uptake regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has no essential cysteine residues and does not contain a structural zinc ion. Lewin, A.C., Doughty, P.A., Flegg, L., Moore, G.R., Spiro, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Two genetically-distinct and differentially-regulated aconitases (AcnA and AcnB) in Escherichia coli. Gruer, M.J., Guest, J.R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli. Zhang, Z., Gosset, G., Barabote, R., Gonzalez, C.S., Cuevas, W.A., Saier, M.H. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential fiu-lacZ fusion regulation linked to Escherichia coli colony development. Newman, D.L., Shapiro, J.A. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The fur gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae: characterization, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis. Achenbach, L.A., Yang, W. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis genomic sequences recognized by chlamydial divalent cation-dependent regulator A (DcrA). Rau, A., Wyllie, S., Whittimore, J., Raulston, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Acid tolerance induced by metabolites and secreted proteins, and how tolerance can be counteracted. Rowbury, R.J. Novartis Found. Symp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional domains of the Escherichia coli ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur). Stojiljkovic, I., Hantke, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of a Dichelobacter nodosus ferric uptake regulator and determination of its regulatory targets. Parker, D., Kennan, R.M., Myers, G.S., Paulsen, I.T., Rood, J.I. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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