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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Amanita


High impact information on Amanita

  • Within 1 hr of exposure to phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide isolated from the mushroom Amanita pahlloides, at 50 micrograms/ml, 60--70% of the cells were dead (trypan blue stainable) [6].
  • Also reviewed are mescaline-containing cacti, psilocybin/psilocin-containing mushrooms, and the Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina mushrooms that contain muscimol and ibotenic acid [7].
  • Pooled data from case record studies involving 452 patients with Amanita phalloides poisoning show a highly significant difference in mortality in favour of silibinin [the main isomer contained in silymarin] (mortality 9.8% vs 18.3% with standard treatment; p < 0.01) [8].
  • A novel toxic cyclopeptide from Amanita suballiacea (Murr.) mushrooms that possesses structural features similar to viroidin is described [9].
  • Phalloidin, a bicyclic peptide from the poisonous Amanita phalloides mushroom, stimulates the viscosimetrically determined polymerization of G-actin to F-actin in 0.6 m potassium iodide, a medium in which spontaneous polymerization does not occur [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Amanita


Biological context of Amanita


Anatomical context of Amanita


Associations of Amanita with chemical compounds


Gene context of Amanita

  • The unknown stereostructure of 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid 1, a novel plant growth regulator isolated from the mushroom Amanita castanopsidis Hongo, was determined to be (2S,3S)-2 through its racemic and enantioselective syntheses employing the chelate-enolate Claisen rearrangement as a key step [22].
  • Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius [23].
  • Because of the similarity of Amanita poisoning to other toxins affecting cytochrome P450, we investigated the use of cimetidine (as a P450 cytochrome inhibitor) as an antidote against a primary toxin of the mushroom alpha-amanitin [19].
  • (2R), (1'R) and (2R), (1'S)-2-amino-3-(1,2-dicarboxyethylthio)propanoic acids from Amanita pantherina. Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors [24].
  • The basidiolipids of Amanita virosa (eng., death cup) and Cantharellus cibarius (engl., chantarelle), of all mushroom species studied, did not bind antibodies of normal human sera [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amanita


  1. Serum cobalt-activated acylase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in toxic hepatitis. Szczeklik, A., Wiernikowski, A., Musial, J., Woźny, E. Gut (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Biomarkers of liver regeneration allow early prediction of hepatic recovery after acute necrosis. Horn, K.D., Wax, P., Schneider, S.M., Martin, T.G., Nine, J.S., Moraca, M.A., Virji, M.A., Aronica, P.A., Rao, K.N. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Mushroom poisoning in infants and children: the Amanita pantherina/muscaria group. Benjamin, D.R. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Lysine-orotate potentiates the toxicity of an extract of the mushroom Amanita phalloides. Halacheva, K., Zhelev, Z., Pajpanova, T., Hubenova, A., Spassova, M., Alexiev, C., Golovinsky, E. Toxicon (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Acute liver failure. Gill, R.Q., Sterling, R.K. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcium dependence of phalloidin-induced liver cell death. Kane, A.B., Young, E.E., Schanne, F.A., Farber, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States. Halpern, J.H. Pharmacol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases. Saller, R., Meier, R., Brignoli, R. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Alloviroidin, the naturally occurring toxic isomer of the cyclopeptide viroidin. Little, M.C., Preston, J.F., Jackson, C., Bonetti, S., King, R.W., Taylor, L.C. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Concentration-dependent influence of various cytochalasins and chaetoglobosins on the phalloidin-induced polymerization of G-actin in 0.6 M potassium iodide. Wieland, T., Löw, I. Biochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Mushroom poisoning. McPartland, J.M., Vilgalys, R.J., Cubeta, M.A. American family physician. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative study of the protective effect of an anabolic steroid. The 19-nortestosterone-phenylpropionate (19 NTPP), on liver steatosis induced by Amanita phalloides and white phosphorus in rats. Jacqueson, A., Thevenin, M., Warnet, J.M., Claude, J.R., Truhaut, R. Arch. Toxicol. Suppl. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Mechanism of protection with 2,4-monofurfurylidene-tetra-O-methyl sorbitol (MSF) against Amanita phalloides toxicity in mice. Zanoli, P. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of zinc, D-penicillamine and oxygen on poisoning with Amanita phalloides. Zinc accelerates liver regeneration and prevents the depletion of brain noradrenaline caused by the mushroom. Floersheim, G.L., Bianchi, L., Probst, A., Chiodetti, N., Honegger, C.G. Agents Actions (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS. Maurer, H.H., Kraemer, T., Ledvinka, O., Schmitt, C.J., Weber, A.A. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Stimulation of cell surface phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin synthesis in 3T2 mouse fibroblasts by phallolysin, a toxin from Amanita phalloides. Shier, W.T., Trotter, J.T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of prostaglandins, branched-chain amino acids and other drugs on the outcome of experimental acute porcine hepatic failure. Alp, M.H., Hickman, R. J. Hepatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Thioctic acid in Amanita poisoning. Roldán, E.J., Pérez Lloret, A. Crit. Care Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Cimetidine protection against alpha-amanitin hepatotoxicity in mice: a potential model for the treatment of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Schneider, S.M., Borochovitz, D., Krenzelok, E.P. Annals of emergency medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. A trend in the therapy of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Moroni, F., Fantozzi, R., Masini, E., Mannaioni, P.F. Arch. Toxicol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce alpha amanitin toxicity. Schneider, S.M., Michelson, E.A., Vanscoy, G. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Total synthesis and determination of the stereochemistry of 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid, a novel plant growth regulator isolated from the mushroom Amanita castanopsidis Hongo. Morimoto, Y., Takaishi, M., Kinoshita, T., Sakaguchi, K., Shibata, K. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes. Kreuzinger, N., Podeu, R., Gruber, F., Göbl, F., Kubicek, C.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. (2R), (1'R) and (2R), (1'S)-2-amino-3-(1,2-dicarboxyethylthio)propanoic acids from Amanita pantherina. Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Fushiya, S., Gu, Q.Q., Ishikawa, K., Funayama, S., Nozoe, S. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Human heterophile antibodies recognizing distinct carbohydrate epitopes on basidiolipids from different mushrooms. Jennemann, R., Sandhoff, R., Gröne, H.J., Wiegandt, H. Immunol. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypouricemia due to increased tubular secretion of urate in children with Amanita phalloides poisoning. Zawadzki, J., Jankowska, I., Moszczyńska, A., Januszewicz, P. Nephron (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Successful Treatment of a Child With Fulminant Liver Failure and Coma Due to Amanita phalloides Poisoning Using Urgent Liver Transplantation. Araz, C., Karaaslan, P., Esen, A., Zeyneloglu, P., Candan, S., Torgay, A., Haberal, M. Transplant. Proc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Chemotherapy of Amanita phalloides poisoning with intravenous silibinin. Hruby, K., Csomos, G., Fuhrmann, M., Thaler, H. Human toxicology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Successful treatment of an adult with Amanita phalloides-induced fulminant liver failure with molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). Lionte, C., Sorodoc, L., Simionescu, V. Romanian journal of gastroenterology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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