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Gene Review

MED25  -  mediator complex subunit 25

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACID1, ARC92, Activator interaction domain-containing protein 1, Activator-recruited cofactor 92 kDa component, CMT2B2, ...
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Disease relevance of MED25


Psychiatry related information on MED25


High impact information on MED25

  • A comparison of omeprazole with ranitidine for ulcers associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Acid Suppression Trial: Ranitidine versus Omeprazole for NSAID-associated Ulcer Treatment (ASTRONAUT) Study Group [10].
  • Images in clinical medicine. Acid-fast organisms [11].
  • Transcriptional activation. Acid blobs and negative noodles [12].
  • Liquid test meals were infused into the stomach and acid secretion was measured by intragastric titration at pH 5.0 Acid secretion after 500 or 750-ml sodium chloride meals was two to three times higher than basal secretion rates and was equivalent to 25-30% of the peak acid output in response to histamine [13].
  • Cannabinoids enhanced epithelial wound closure either alone or in combination with lysophosphatidic acid through a CB1-lysophosphatidic acid 1 heteromeric receptor complex [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of MED25


Biological context of MED25

  • Despite many known targets of VP16, ARC92/ACID1 appears to impose a critical control on transcription activation by VP16 in mammalian cells [1].
  • Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ARC92 in human cells results in selective inhibition of Gal4-VP16 gene activation [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Acid increases proliferation and survival, and decreases apoptosis in SEG-1 cells by activating the MAPK pathways [21].
  • RESULTS: Acid-exposed SEG-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation and total cell numbers, and a significant decrease in apoptosis [21].
  • 8. Acid hydrolysis of the peptide results in an aminoacylflavin which shows a pKa of fluorescence quenching of 5 [22].

Anatomical context of MED25


Associations of MED25 with chemical compounds

  • A subpopulation of Mediator is associated with ARC92/ACID1, which is specifically required for VP16 activation both in vitro and in mammalian cells, but is dispensable for other activators such as SP1 [1].
  • Reduced Prefrontal Glutamate/Glutamine and {gamma}-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Major Depression Determined Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy [28].
  • Alpha-1-Acid glycoprotein is an acute-phase serum protein which is found in increased amounts in patients with a variety of cancers [29].
  • Dietary Administration of the Proapoptotic Vitamin E Analogue {alpha}-Tocopheryloxyacetic Acid Inhibits Metastatic Murine Breast Cancer [30].
  • Interleukin-6 Increases Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal in Humans and Glucose Uptake and Fatty Acid Oxidation In Vitro via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase [31].

Regulatory relationships of MED25

  • Taken together, our results suggest that ARC92 is a direct and specific target of the VP16 transactivator that serves in the context of the ARC/Mediator coactivator as an important transducer of transcription activating signals from the VP16 activation domain to the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery [20].

Other interactions of MED25

  • ARC92/ACID1 further contains a novel activator-interacting domain (ACID), which it shares with at least one other human gene termed PTOV1/ACID2 [1].
  • We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that VP16 activates transcription through a specific MED25-associated Mediator, which is deficient in CDK8 [32].
  • Then, we show that the amino-terminal region of WRN from amino acid 1 to 388, which comprise the exonuclease domain, can be efficiently stimulated by Ku to degrade DNA substrates, indicating that the helicase domain and the carboxyl-terminal tail are not required for the stimulatory process [33].
  • The electrophoresis of "vWF Normandy" showed a shift in the band corresponding to a polypeptide from amino acid 1 to 272 [34].
  • Using deletion mutant analysis, we identify the Tax interaction domain of TORC3 as a region spanning from amino acid 1 to 103, which contains a coiled-coil domain [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MED25


  1. A novel docking site on Mediator is critical for activation by VP16 in mammalian cells. Mittler, G., Stühler, T., Santolin, L., Uhlmann, T., Kremmer, E., Lottspeich, F., Berti, L., Meisterernst, M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Ursodiol for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Mayo Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis-Ursodeoxycholic Acid Study Group. Lindor, K.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of acid and duodenogastroesophageal reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Vaezi, M.F., Richter, J.E. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and characterization of cerebral cortical response to esophageal mucosal acid exposure and distention. Kern, M.K., Birn, R.M., Jaradeh, S., Jesmanowicz, A., Cox, R.W., Hyde, J.S., Shaker, R. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux: relationship to pH and importance in Barrett's esophagus. Champion, G., Richter, J.E., Vaezi, M.F., Singh, S., Alexander, R. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The development and maintenance of human visceral pain hypersensitivity is dependent on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Willert, R.P., Woolf, C.J., Hobson, A.R., Delaney, C., Thompson, D.G., Aziz, Q. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Heart failure, dementia, and diuretics: is uric Acid involved? Reyes, A.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Fatty Acid ethyl esters: quantitative biomarkers for maternal alcohol consumption. Bearer, C.F., Santiago, L.M., O'Riordan, M.A., Buck, K., Lee, S.C., Singer, L.T. J. Pediatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study. Sagduyu, K., Dokucu, M.E., Eddy, B.A., Craigen, G., Baldassano, C.F., Yildiz, A. Nutrition journal [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of omeprazole with ranitidine for ulcers associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Acid Suppression Trial: Ranitidine versus Omeprazole for NSAID-associated Ulcer Treatment (ASTRONAUT) Study Group. Yeomans, N.D., Tulassay, Z., Juhász, L., Rácz, I., Howard, J.M., van Rensburg, C.J., Swannell, A.J., Hawkey, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Images in clinical medicine. Acid-fast organisms. Saxman, S., Portman, R.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional activation. Acid blobs and negative noodles. Sigler, P.B. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Studies on the mechanisms of food-stimulated gastric acid secretion in normal human subjects. Richardson, C.T., Walsh, J.H., Hicks, M.I., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of cannabinoid receptors in the human colon: cannabinoids promote epithelial wound healing. Wright, K., Rooney, N., Feeney, M., Tate, J., Robertson, D., Welham, M., Ward, S. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Sulfonolipids of gliding bacteria. Structure of the N-acylaminosulfonates. Godchaux, W., Leadbetter, E.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Resistance to the Small Molecule Maturation Inhibitor 3-O-(3',3'-Dimethylsuccinyl)-Betulinic Acid Is Conferred by a Variety of Single Amino Acid Substitutions at the CA-SP1 Cleavage Site in Gag. Zhou, J., Chen, C.H., Aiken, C. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Single amino Acid changes can influence titer, heparin binding, and tissue tropism in different adeno-associated virus serotypes. Wu, Z., Asokan, A., Grieger, J.C., Govindasamy, L., Agbandje-McKenna, M., Samulski, R.J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus Leader Protein Amino Acid Residue 57 Regulates Subgroup-Specific Virus Growth on BHK-21 Cells. Takano-Maruyama, M., Ohara, Y., Asakura, K., Okuwa, T. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of a D-Stereospecific Amino Acid Amidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi SV3, a New Member of the Penicillin-recognizing Proteins. Okazaki, S., Suzuki, A., Komeda, H., Yamaguchi, S., Asano, Y., Yamane, T. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. The activator-recruited cofactor/Mediator coactivator subunit ARC92 is a functionally important target of the VP16 transcriptional activator. Yang, F., DeBeaumont, R., Zhou, S., Näär, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Acid exposure activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in Barrett's esophagus. Souza, R.F., Shewmake, K., Terada, L.S., Spechler, S.J. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of the covalently bound flavin of thiamin dehydrogenase. Kenney, W.C., Edmondson, D.E., Seng, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Duodenal acidification and secretin, but not intraduodenal fat, inhibit human gastric acid secretion via prostaglandins. Taylor, S.D., Soudah, H.C., Chey, W.Y., Scheiman, J.M. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of the translocated c-myc in Burkitt's lymphoma by a PNA complementary to the E mu enhancer. Cutrona, G., Carpaneto, E.M., Ponzanelli, A., Ulivi, M., Millo, E., Scarfì, S., Roncella, S., Benatti, U., Boffa, L.C., Ferrarini, M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Peripheral Effect of {alpha}-Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone on Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle. An, J.J., Rhee, Y., Kim, S.H., Kim, D.M., Han, D.H., Hwang, J.H., Jin, Y.J., Cha, B.S., Baik, J.H., Lee, W.T., Lim, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Rosiglitazone controls Fatty Acid cycling in human adipose tissue by means of glyceroneogenesis and glycerol phosphorylation. Leroyer, S.N., Tordjman, J., Chauvet, G., Quette, J., Chapron, C., Forest, C., Antoine, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Phenotypic variation in molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides and human gastric epithelial cell surface glycoforms. Acid-induced phase variation in Lewis(x) and Lewis(y) expression by H. Pylori lipopolysaccharides. Moran, A.P., Knirel, Y.A., Senchenkova, S.N., Widmalm, G., Hynes, S.O., Jansson, P.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Reduced Prefrontal Glutamate/Glutamine and {gamma}-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Major Depression Determined Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Hasler, G., van der Veen, J.W., Tumonis, T., Meyers, N., Shen, J., Drevets, W.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Monitoring the therapy of lung cancer with alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Ganz, P.A., Baras, M., Ma, P.Y., Elashoff, R.M. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Dietary Administration of the Proapoptotic Vitamin E Analogue {alpha}-Tocopheryloxyacetic Acid Inhibits Metastatic Murine Breast Cancer. Hahn, T., Szabo, L., Gold, M., Ramanathapuram, L., Hurley, L.H., Akporiaye, E.T. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Interleukin-6 Increases Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal in Humans and Glucose Uptake and Fatty Acid Oxidation In Vitro via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase. Carey, A.L., Steinberg, G.R., Macaulay, S.L., Thomas, W.G., Holmes, A.G., Ramm, G., Prelovsek, O., Hohnen-Behrens, C., Watt, M.J., James, D.E., Kemp, B.E., Pedersen, B.K., Febbraio, M.A. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. The VP16 Activation Domain Establishes an Active Mediator Lacking CDK8 in Vivo. Uhlmann, T., Boeing, S., Lehmbacher, M., Meisterernst, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Requirements for the nucleolytic processing of DNA ends by the Werner syndrome protein-Ku70/80 complex. Li, B., Comai, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. The "Normandy" variant of von Willebrand disease: characterization of a point mutation in the von Willebrand factor gene. Gaucher, C., Jorieux, S., Mercier, B., Oufkir, D., Mazurier, C. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced activation of tax-dependent transcription of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat by TORC3. Koga, H., Ohshima, T., Shimotohno, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. The cardiac K+ channel KCNQ1 is essential for gastric acid secretion. Grahammer, F., Herling, A.W., Lang, H.J., Schmitt-Gräff, A., Wittekindt, O.H., Nitschke, R., Bleich, M., Barhanin, J., Warth, R. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Clinical trial of clarithromycin for cutaneous (disseminated) infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae. Wallace, R.J., Tanner, D., Brennan, P.J., Brown, B.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Circulating deoxyribonucleic Acid as prognostic marker in non-small-cell lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Gautschi, O., Bigosch, C., Huegli, B., Jermann, M., Marx, A., Chassé, E., Ratschiller, D., Weder, W., Joerger, M., Betticher, D.C., Stahel, R.A., Ziegler, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Immobilization of peroxidase glycoprotein on gold electrodes modified with mixed epoxy-boronic Acid monolayers. Abad, J.M., Vélez, M., Santamaría, C., Guisán, J.M., Matheus, P.R., Vázquez, L., Gazaryan, I., Gorton, L., Gibson, T., Fernández, V.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
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