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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Poisoning


Psychiatry related information on Poisoning


High impact information on Poisoning


Chemical compound and disease context of Poisoning


Biological context of Poisoning


Anatomical context of Poisoning


Gene context of Poisoning

  • The polymorphic CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes encode enzymes participating in the metabolism of several potentially toxic drugs, and mutations in these genes may lead to adverse drug reactions, possibly even intoxications [27].
  • Pyrazolone intoxication accounts for most (52 percent) mild analgesic poisonings in West Germany. Severe and fatal intoxication with pyrazolones is, however, rare [28].
  • Small incremental intravenous doses of 0.1 to 0.2mg of flumazenil are useful in benzodiazepine intoxications, in differential diagnosis of coma, excessive postoperative sedation and possibly in reversing paradoxical reactions of benzodiazepines [29].
  • Secondary mania may be caused by metabolic derangements, intoxications, and/or structural lesions, as well as by epilepsy [30].
  • OBJECTIVE: Intoxications with organophosphorous compounds such as paraoxon, an inhibitor of serine hydrolases, mainly butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, are frequent [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Poisoning


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  2. Mannitol. Warren, S.E., Blantz, R.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Is lithium bad for the kidneys? Lippmann, S. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Utility of acetylcysteine in treating poisonings and adverse drug reactions. Chyka, P.A., Butler, A.Y., Holliman, B.J., Herman, M.I. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Lipoic acid reduces the activities of biotin-dependent carboxylases in rat liver. Zempleni, J., Trusty, T.A., Mock, D.M. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Intoxication in manic patients following chaotic self-administration of lithium. Thiel, A., Nau, R., Lehmann, K., Willers, T. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of oral administration of a commercial activated charcoal suspension on serum osmolality and lactate concentration in the dog. Burkitt, J.M., Haskins, S.C., Aldrich, J., Jandrey, K.E., Rezende, M.L., Boyle, J.E. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Current concepts about the treatment of selected poisonings: nitrite, cyanide, sulfide, barium, and quinidine. Smith, R.P., Gosselin, R.E. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Elixirs, diluents, and the passage of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Wax, P.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of 5' regulatory-region polymorphisms on paraoxonase-gene (PON1) expression. Brophy, V.H., Jampsa, R.L., Clendenning, J.B., McKinstry, L.A., Jarvik, G.P., Furlong, C.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Temporal separation of protein toxin translocation from processing events. Hudson, T.H., Neville, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Liver glutathione depletion induced by bromobenzene, iodobenzene, and diethylmaleate poisoning and its relation to lipid peroxidation and necrosis. Casini, A.F., Pompella, A., Comporti, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Variability of neuropathologic lesions in experimental methylmercurial encephalopathy in primates. Shaw, C.M., Mottet, N.K., Body, R.L., Luschei, E.S. Am. J. Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of fire smoke. Alarie, Y. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Aldicarb poisoning. A case report with prolonged cholinesterase inhibition and improvement after pralidoxime therapy. Burgess, J.L., Bernstein, J.N., Hurlbut, K. Arch. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action. Safe, S. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Microenvironment of the peripheral nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. Olsson, Y. Critical reviews in neurobiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Ascorbyl radical as natural indicator of oxidative stress: quantitative regularities. Roginsky, V.A., Stegmann, H.B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 on phenytoin dose requirement. van der Weide, J., Steijns, L.S., van Weelden, M.J., de Haan, K. Pharmacogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Childhood poisoning: a population study in Trieste, Italy, 1975-1994. Marchi, A.G., Renier, S., Messi, G., Barbone, F. Journal of clinical epidemiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Adult toxicology in critical care: Part II: specific poisonings. Mokhlesi, B., Leikin, J.B., Murray, P., Corbridge, T.C. Chest (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Meprobamate kinetics during and after terminated hemoperfusion in acute intoxications. Jacobsen, D., Wiik-Larsen, E., Saltvedt, E., Bredesen, J.E. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Central and peripheral neurotoxic effects of chronic methyl bromide intoxication. De Haro, L., Gastaut, J.L., Jouglard, J., Renacco, E. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Glial cell intrusions actively remove detritus due to toxic chemicals from within nerve cells. Cavanagh, J.B., Nolan, C.C., Brown, A.W. Neurotoxicology (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Alpha 1-microglobulin: clinical laboratory aspects and applications. Penders, J., Delanghe, J.R. Clin. Chim. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Dose-response inhibition of rat compound nerve action potential by dextropropoxyphene and codeine compared to morphine and cocaine in vitro. Brodin, P., Skoglund, L.A. Gen. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes and amitriptyline metabolite ratios in a series of medicolegal autopsies. Koski, A., Sistonen, J., Ojanperä, I., Gergov, M., Vuori, E., Sajantila, A. Forensic Sci. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Acute toxicity of pyrazolones. Okonek, S., Reinecke, H.J. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Pharmacokinetics and clinical use of flumazenil (Ro 15-1788). Klotz, U., Kanto, J. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. A maniclike illness associated with right frontal arteriovenous malformation. Gross, R.A., Herridge, P. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Intravenous L-lactate application in minipigs partially protects acetylcholinesteratic but not butyrylcholinesteratic activity in plasma from inhibition by paraoxon. Maleck, W.H., Kern, N., Beha, U., Roth, C., Rüfer, R., Petroianu, G.A. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Current recommendations for treatment of severe toxic alcohol poisonings. Mégarbane, B., Borron, S.W., Baud, F.J. Intensive care medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Prognosis of cocaine body-packers. de Prost, N., Lefebvre, A., Questel, F., Roche, N., Pourriat, J.L., Huchon, G., Rabbat, A. Intensive care medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Fluvoxamine but not sertraline inhibits the metabolism of olanzapine: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Weigmann, H., Gerek, S., Zeisig, A., Müller, M., Härtter, S., Hiemke, C. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Relationship between gamma-hydroxybutyrate plasma concentrations and its electroencephalographic effects in the rat. Van Sassenbroeck, D.K., De Paepe, P., Belpaire, F.M., Rosseel, M.T., Martens, P., Boon, P.A., Buylaert, W.A. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema: clinical characteristics in children. Fisher, C.J., Albertson, T.E., Foulke, G.E. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
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