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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Spores, Fungal

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Disease relevance of Spores, Fungal

  • This study demonstrates that patients with bronchial asthma have a higher incidence of immediate skin sensitivity by intradermal testing, whereas patients with allergic rhinitis have late phase sensitivity to these fungal spores [1].
  • Successful treatment of onychomycosis in the infection site depends not only on achieving the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antifungal agent, usually determined on fresh, proliferating fungal strains, but also on the effectivity against fungal spores dormant in nail keratin [2].

High impact information on Spores, Fungal

  • Incubation with NADPH oxidase inhibitors inhibited both superoxide anion production and the activation of p56(Hck), p72(Syk), and p77(Btk) in response to fungal spores [3].
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the release of allergen from a range of individual fungal spores before and after germination [4].
  • BACKGROUND: The biologic responses to inhaled airborne fungal spores, which are well-known allergen carriers, would be better understood if we had an insight into their pattern of distribution and interaction with lung structures [5].
  • Although the aerosol samples were collected in March under wintry conditions, the organic carbon from fungal spores amounted to 2.9-5.4% of organic carbon in the "coarse mode" size fraction [6].
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and KC were differentially upregulated over the acute phase inflammatory cytokines MIP-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rat alveolar macrophages stimulated with fungal spores from Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Eurotium amstelodami, and Cladosporium cladosporioides [7].

Biological context of Spores, Fungal

  • These observations suggest that the inflammatory cytokines MIP-2 and KC may be involved in the inflammation arising from the inhalation of fungal spores in a time- and concentration-dependent manner [7].
  • Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-6 in NAL fluid were analyzed, and occupational exposure to inhalable dust, fungal spores, endotoxins and terpenes was confirmed by personal monitoring during the day of sampling [8].

Anatomical context of Spores, Fungal


Associations of Spores, Fungal with chemical compounds

  • We report a statistical analysis of the relationships between emergency admissions for asthma to a hospital in Mexico City and daily average airborne concentrations of pollen, fungal spores, air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, and particulates) and weather factors [10].
  • The production of aromadendrene in the completely unripe fruit body suggests the existence of communication events in the early stage of ascomata formation between the fungus and the host plant. alpha-Farnesene could represent a chemotactic attractant to saprophytic organisms in order to disperse the fungal spores in the environment [11].
  • The HFBII protein was isolated from the fungal spores by extraction with trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile solution, and by bubbling from the lactose-based culture medium [12].
  • The indoor and outdoor PM10 collected was characterised as being a heterogeneous mixture of particles (soot, fibres, sea salt, smelter, gypsum, pollen and fungal spores) [13].
  • The fungal spores were found to trigger histamine release from the BAL cells, but relatively high concentrations (0.1-2 mg/ml) were needed [14].

Gene context of Spores, Fungal

  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative allergenicity of tree and grass pollen and fungal spores as the cause of spring allergic rhinitis in central Indiana. METHODS: (1) Chart review of 189 Indiana natives with seasonal allergic rhinitis to ascertain clinical sensitivity to tree or grass pollens [15].
  • The germination of fungal spores into hyphae is inhibited by concentrations from 0.418 mol x 1(-1) to 0.816 mol x 1(-1) ethanol [16].
  • Fungal spores showed two periods of high sporulation, from April to June and in September-October, and two marked decreases, during winter and August [17].
  • Mortality of alates caused by C4-B was tested at two field sites by dispersing fungal spores on grassy lawns and collecting alates from the treated areas [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spores, Fungal

  • As part of an ongoing investigation to determine the etiopathogenesis for ODTS, this study has focused on activation of guinea pig bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) cells as evidenced by the production of superoxide anion in response to fungal spores and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [19].


  1. The significance of the spores of the Basidiomycetes (mushrooms and their allies) in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Santilli, J., Rockwell, W.J., Collins, R.P. Annals of allergy. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Action mechanisms of modern antifungal agents and resulting problems in the management of onychomycosis. Seebacher, C. Mycoses (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Tyrosine kinase activation in response to fungal spores is primarily dependent on endogenous reactive oxygen production in macrophages. Shahan, T.A., Sorenson, W.G., Simpson, J., Kefalides, N.A., Lewis, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Allergen detection from 11 fungal species before and after germination. Green, B.J., Mitakakis, T.Z., Tovey, E.R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of fungal spores with the lungs: distribution and retention of inhaled puffball (Calvatia excipuliformis) spores. Geiser, M., Leupin, N., Maye, I., Hof, V.I., Gehr, P. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of the carbon content of airborne fungal spores. Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Zibuschka, F., Hitzenberger, R., Kraus, G.F., Puxbaum, H. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Concentration- and time-dependent upregulation and release of the cytokines MIP-2, KC, TNF, and MIP-1alpha in rat alveolar macrophages by fungal spores implicated in airway inflammation. Shahan, T.A., Sorenson, W.G., Paulauskis, J.D., Morey, R., Lewis, D.M. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Fungal spores as such do not cause nasal inflammation in mold exposure. Roponen, M., Seuri, M., Nevalainen, A., Hirvonen, M.R. Inhalation toxicology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus. Waldorf, A.R., Levitz, S.M., Diamond, R.D. J. Infect. Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of the relationships between environmental factors (aeroallergens, air pollution, and weather) and asthma emergency admissions to a hospital in Mexico City. Rosas, I., McCartney, H.A., Payne, R.W., Calderón, C., Lacey, J., Chapela, R., Ruiz-Velazco, S. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Determination of specific volatile organic compounds synthesised during Tuber borchii fruit body development by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zeppa, S., Gioacchini, A.M., Guidi, C., Guescini, M., Pierleoni, R., Zambonelli, A., Stocchi, V. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression of the vegetative and spore-bound hydrophobins of Trichoderma reesei--cloning and characterization of the hfb2 gene. Nakari-Setälä, T., Aro, N., Ilmén, M., Muñoz, G., Kalkkinen, N., Penttilä, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The spatial and temporal variations in PM10 mass from six UK homes. BéruBé, K.A., Sexton, K.J., Jones, T.P., Moreno, T., Anderson, S., Richards, R.J. Sci. Total Environ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The indoor microfungus Trichoderma viride potentiates histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells. Larsen, F.O., Clementsen, P., Hansen, M., Maltbaek, N., Gravesen, S., Skov, P.S., Norn, S. APMIS (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of tree and grass pollens and fungal spores on spring allergic rhinitis: a comparative study. Wu, L.Y., Steidle, G.M., Meador, M.A., Fosso, C.K., McDowell, L.J., Shin, R.B., Holbreich, M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Ethanol-induced dimorphism and lipid composition changes in Mucor fragilis CCMI 142. Serrano, I., Lopes da Silva, T., Carlos Roseiro, J. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Pollen and mold allergy: aerobiologic survey in the atmosphere of Cagliari, Italy (1986-1988). Cosentino, S., Pisano, P.L., Fadda, M.E., Palmas, F. Annals of allergy. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. A strain of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites. Wright, M.S., Raina, A.K., Lax, A.R. J. Econ. Entomol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Superoxide anion production in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and fungal spores implicated in organic dust toxic syndrome. Shahan, T.A., Sorenson, W.G., Lewis, D.M. Environmental research. (1994) [Pubmed]
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