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Gene Review

ALRH  -  Allergic rhinitis

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of ALRH


Psychiatry related information on ALRH


High impact information on ALRH

  • Along with asthma and allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis is an important manifestation of atopy that is characterized by the formation of allergy antibodies (IgE) to environmental allergens [11].
  • Although allergen immunotherapy is effective for allergic rhinitis, its role in treating asthma is unclear [12].
  • These results provide direct evidence of an important role for the 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid in allergic rhinitis and support the notion that further experiments in this area may lead to new therapeutic approaches to allergic disorders [13].
  • Eight subjects with allergic rhinitis underwent nasal challenge on two occasions after an oral dose of 800 mg of A-64077 or an identical-appearing placebo [13].
  • Because alpha-adrenergic stimulation causes bronchoconstriction, the alpha-adrenergic responsiveness of 21 subjects with allergic asthma was compared with that of 16 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 38 normal control subjects [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of ALRH


Biological context of ALRH

  • From 100 Danish sib-pair families selected for allergy, families containing sib-pairs matching a phenotype definition of both clinical allergic rhinitis and confirmed specific allergy were chosen [20].
  • The study revealed one major candidate region on chromosome 4q24-q27 (LOD=2.83) and eight minor candidate regions 2q12-q33, 3q13, 4p15-q12, 5q13-q15, 6p24-p23, 12p13, 22q13, and Xp21 (LOD=1.04-1.63) likely to contain susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis [20].
  • This relation remained significant even after the exclusion of children with diagnosed asthma (P less than 0.0001) and of all children with a history of wheezing, allergic rhinitis, or eczema (P less than 0.0001) [2].
  • Therefore, the patients with allergic asthma had significantly enhanced alpha-adrenergic responses when compared both to normal subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis; the possibility that increased alpha-adrenergic activity contributes to the asthmatic diathesis warrants further exploration [14].
  • Recurrent staphylococcal abscesses associated with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and allergic rhinitis [21].

Anatomical context of ALRH


Associations of ALRH with chemical compounds

  • Allergic rhinitis is a common disease of complex inheritance and is characterised by mucosal inflammation caused by allergen exposure [20].
  • The pupils of asthmatic subjects dilated by greater than 0.5 mm in response to 1.8 +/- 0.14 per cent phenylephrine, patients with allergic rhinitis required 2.4 +/- 0.16 (P less than 0.01), and normal controls needed 2.7 +/- 0.07 (P less than 0.00001) [14].
  • Urinary leukotriene E4 after antigen challenge and in acute asthma and allergic rhinitis [26].
  • However, the results also suggest that suppression of the IL-5-eosinophil pathway in this model of allergic rhinitis may not completely suppress clinical symptoms or nasal histamine hyperresponsiveness, because of the existence of other cytokine-progenitor pathways that may induce and maintain the presence of other inflammatory cell populations [27].
  • Moreover, BK challenge significantly increased CXCR4 mRNA levels in nasal tissue of mild allergic rhinitis subjects in vivo, but not normal controls [28].

Regulatory relationships of ALRH


Other interactions of ALRH


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ALRH


  1. Positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 13q14 that influences immunoglobulin E levels and asthma. Zhang, Y., Leaves, N.I., Anderson, G.G., Ponting, C.P., Broxholme, J., Holt, R., Edser, P., Bhattacharyya, S., Dunham, A., Adcock, I.M., Pulleyn, L., Barnes, P.J., Harper, J.I., Abecasis, G., Cardon, L., White, M., Burton, J., Matthews, L., Mott, R., Ross, M., Cox, R., Moffatt, M.F., Cookson, W.O. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children. Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Autoantibodies to beta 2-adrenergic receptors: a possible cause of adrenergic hyporesponsiveness in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Venter, J.C., Fraser, C.M., Harrison, L.C. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. The spectrum of IgE-mediated responses to latex. Sussman, G.L., Tarlo, S., Dolovich, J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Eosinophils in chronically inflamed human upper airway tissues express transforming growth factor beta 1 gene (TGF beta 1). Ohno, I., Lea, R.G., Flanders, K.C., Clark, D.A., Banwatt, D., Dolovich, J., Denburg, J., Harley, C.B., Gauldie, J., Jordana, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Allergic rhinitis and its consequences on quality of sleep: An unexplored area. Léger, D., Annesi-Maesano, I., Carat, F., Rugina, M., Chanal, I., Pribil, C., El Hasnaoui, A., Bousquet, J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis and asthma. A population-based study of young adults. Leynaert, B., Neukirch, C., Liard, R., Bousquet, J., Neukirch, F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mulvihill-Smith syndrome: case report and review. Bartsch, O., Tympner, K.D., Schwinger, E., Gorlin, R.J. J. Med. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Skin test results and self-reported symptom severity in allergic rhinitis: the role of psychological factors. Graif, Y., Goldberg, A., Tamir, R., Vigiser, D., Melamed, S. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Why generic and disease-specific quality-of-life instruments should be used together for the evaluation of patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Leong, K.P., Yeak, S.C., Saurajen, A.S., Mok, P.K., Earnest, A., Siow, J.K., Chee, N.W., Yeo, S.B., Khoo, M.L., Lee, J.C., Seshadri, R., Chan, S.P., Tang, C.Y., Chng, H.H. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. A major susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis maps to chromosome 3q21. Lee, Y.A., Wahn, U., Kehrt, R., Tarani, L., Businco, L., Gustafsson, D., Andersson, F., Oranje, A.P., Wolkertstorfer, A., v Berg, A., Hoffmann, U., Küster, W., Wienker, T., Rüschendorf, F., Reis, A. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Ragweed immunotherapy in adult asthma. Creticos, P.S., Reed, C.E., Norman, P.S., Khoury, J., Adkinson, N.F., Buncher, C.R., Busse, W.W., Bush, R.K., Gadde, J., Li, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Reduced allergen-induced nasal congestion and leukotriene synthesis with an orally active 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Knapp, H.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Alpha-adrenergic hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Henderson, W.R., Shelhamer, J.H., Reingold, D.B., Smith, L.J., Evans, R., Kaliner, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Anti-IgE Antibodies for the Treatment of IgE-Mediated Allergic Diseases. Chang, T.W., Wu, P.C., Hsu, C.L., Hung, A.F. Adv. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Long-lived Th2 clones specific for seasonal and perennial allergens can be detected in blood and skin by their TCR-hypervariable regions. Bohle, B., Schwihla, H., Hu, H.Z., Friedl-Hajek, R., Sowka, S., Ferreira, F., Breiteneder, H., Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A., de Weger, R.A., Mudde, G.C., Ebner, C., Van Reijsen, F.C. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to dexamethasone nasal drops. Kimmerle, R., Rolla, A.R. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Clinical comparison of histamine H1-receptor antagonist drugs. Du Buske, L.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Cetirizine: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Watson, W.T., Simons, K.J., Chen, X.Y., Simons, F.E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Allergic rhinitis--a total genome-scan for susceptibility genes suggests a locus on chromosome 4q24-q27. Haagerup, A., Bjerke, T., Schøitz, P.O., Binderup, H.G., Dahl, R., Kruse, T.A. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Recurrent staphylococcal abscesses associated with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and allergic rhinitis. Hill, H.R., Williams, P.B., Krueger, G.G., Janis, B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Increase of lymphocytes with Fc receptors for IgE in patients with allergic rhinitis during the grass pollen season. Spiegelberg, H.L., Simon, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Potentiation of human immunoglobulin E synthesis by plasma immunoglobulin E binding factors from patients with the hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome. Leung, D.Y., Frankel, R., Wood, N., Geha, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Human eosinophils produce neurotrophins and secrete nerve growth factor on immunologic stimuli. Kobayashi, H., Gleich, G.J., Butterfield, J.H., Kita, H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: novel innate receptors for human basophil activation and inhibition. Sloane, D.E., Tedla, N., Awoniyi, M., Macglashan, D.W., Borges, L., Austen, K.F., Arm, J.P. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Urinary leukotriene E4 after antigen challenge and in acute asthma and allergic rhinitis. Taylor, G.W., Taylor, I., Black, P., Maltby, N.H., Turner, N., Fuller, R.W., Dollery, C.T. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Pathogenesis of murine experimental allergic rhinitis: a study of local and systemic consequences of IL-5 deficiency. Saito, H., Matsumoto, K., Denburg, A.E., Crawford, L., Ellis, R., Inman, M.D., Sehmi, R., Takatsu, K., Matthaei, K.I., Denburg, J.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Functional expression of the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 by human bronchial epithelial cells: regulation by proinflammatory mediators. Eddleston, J., Christiansen, S.C., Zuraw, B.L. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. IL-13 mRNA and immunoreactivity in allergen-induced rhinitis: comparison with IL-4 expression and modulation by topical glucocorticoid therapy. Ghaffar, O., Laberge, S., Jacobson, M.R., Lowhagen, O., Rak, S., Durham, S.R., Hamid, Q. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is upregulated in the nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis. Elhini, A., Abdelwahab, S., Ikeda, K. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human nasal mucosa with nasal allergy. Kawamoto, H., Takumida, M., Takeno, S., Watanabe, H., Fukushima, N., Yajin, K. Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine in allergic asthma and rhinitis. Rimaniol, A.C., Till, S.J., Garcia, G., Capel, F., Godot, V., Balabanian, K., Durand-Gasselin, I., Varga, E.M., Simonneau, G., Emilie, D., Durham, S.R., Humbert, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Eotaxin mRNA and protein expression in chronic sinusitis and allergen-induced nasal responses in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Minshall, E.M., Cameron, L., Lavigne, F., Leung, D.Y., Hamilos, D., Garcia-Zepada, E.A., Rothenberg, M., Luster, A.D., Hamid, Q. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of a powerful high affinity antagonist that inhibits biological activities of human interleukin-13. Oshima, Y., Puri, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Nasal mucosal immunoexpression of the mast cell chemoattractants TGF-beta, eotaxin, and stem cell factor and their receptors in allergic rhinitis. Salib, R.J., Kumar, S., Wilson, S.J., Howarth, P.H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Dense mapping of chromosome 12q13.12-q23.3 and linkage to asthma and atopy. Barnes, K.C., Freidhoff, L.R., Nickel, R., Chiu, Y.F., Juo, S.H., Hizawa, N., Naidu, R.P., Ehrlich, E., Duffy, D.L., Schou, C., Levett, P.N., Marsh, D.G., Beaty, T.H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Regulatory effect of histamine H1 receptor antagonist on the expression of messenger RNA encoding CC chemokines in the human nasal mucosa. Fujikura, T., Shimosawa, T., Yakuo, I. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Adkinson, N.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Association of asthma with serum IgE levels and skin-test reactivity to allergens. Burrows, B., Martinez, F.D., Halonen, M., Barbee, R.A., Cline, M.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Transfer of allergen-specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Agosti, J.M., Sprenger, J.D., Lum, L.G., Witherspoon, R.P., Fisher, L.D., Storb, R., Henderson, W.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Measles history and atopic diseases: a population-based cross-sectional study. Paunio, M., Heinonen, O.P., Virtanen, M., Leinikki, P., Patja, A., Peltola, H. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. A common cold virus, rhinovirus 16, potentiates airway inflammation after segmental antigen bronchoprovocation in allergic subjects. Calhoun, W.J., Dick, E.C., Schwartz, L.B., Busse, W.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
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